Amanani amaRoma yinkqubo yokubala esebenzisa oonobumba abakhulu abasebenza njengeempawu ukunika inani okanye ixabiso. Baqala kwinani loku-1 elimelwe ngunobumba omkhulu I, ukuya kunobumba M obeka ixabiso elilinganayo okanye elingaphezulu kwewaka. Masibone yonke into enxulumene nazo apha ngezantsi.

Ziziphi iinombolo zamaRoma?

Inkcazo yamanani amaRoma isekwa xa inkqubo yexabiso ngokwamanani yahluke mpela kwinkqubo yemetric yedesimali. Bafuna ukwenza lula amanani kunye namanani apho isabelo sahlukile. Ngenxa yoko, oonobumba abakhulu babelwe amanani, njengenani loku-1 limelwe ngoonobumba "I".

Kwakhona, ngenxa 5 "V"; I-10 imelwe ngu "X"; i "L" engama-50; I-100 yileta "C", "D" ka-500 kunye no "M" nge-1000. La manani asetyenziswa kuncwadi ukucacisa izahluko, nakwezinye iindawo zeemovie abazibona kwindawo yesibini okanye yesithathu, kwimisitho yoluntu; ukuqeshwa kweenkongolo; Imiboniso yeqonga, amagama oopopu, abalawuli okanye ukulandelelana komnombo kwisidima, phakathi kwezinye izinto.

Imvelaphi kunye nembali.

Njengoko igama layo lisitsho, livela kuphuhliso lolwazi amaRoma awayenalo ngelixa lalilawula indawo enkulu emhlabeni. Ngoku, akazi ngenene ukuba bavela phi okanye ngubani na umntu ocinga okanye owenza imathematika owayenoluvo lokuqala.

Ngamafutshane, siqinisekile ngento yokuba bayilwa ngamaRoma. Zimbini iinguqulelo ekubhekiswe kuzo indalo yazo: ngendlela efanayo kuyaziwa ukuba bazalwa kunye nolawulo lweRoma kwaye ngexesha lakhe babesetyenziswa kuyo yonke imisebenzi.

Inguqulelo yokuqala

Abanye ababhali-mbali bakholelwa kuhlobo lwendalo yamanye amanani akhoyo kwezinye iinkcubeko kwaye amaRoma ayewalungelelanisa nobomi bawo. Nangona kunjalo, kuthiwa amanani avela kumanqaku nakwiakhawunti abayenzileyo ngeminwe yabo xa bebala into; ke ibiyindlela elula yokuseta izixa.

Inguqulelo yesibini

Ibonisa ukuba ngenene bavela kwezinye iisimboli, besebenzisa iileta zoonobumba besiRoma ukuzidibanisa nokubala kwabo. Nangona kungekho siqinisekiso malunga nale ithiyori, ukuza kuthi ga ngoku zombini ezi nguqulelo azikhange ziqinisekiswe ngababhali-mbali.

Umdibaniso wamanani enziwe ngamaEtruria wawufana kakhulu namanani amaRoma, ukusuka apho ingaqala khona, ukuqaphela ukuba baluthathe olu hlobo lwamanani njengesalathiso. I-Etruscans ithathela ingqalelo amaxabiso aneempawu zokubiza ubungakanani be-5, 10, 50, 100 kunye ne-1000, umahluko ubekwa xa amaxabiso asezantsi enikezelwa kula manani, kukho umahluko kumanani amaRoma.

Inkcazo malunga nemvelaphi yamanani isetyenziswa ngokubala ngeminwe, ehlala ingenanto xa ukhangela umxholo onxulumene neenombolo ezinxulunyaniswe noonobumba X, M no-D, oko ke kuthetha ukuba u-10, 1000 no-50 bamisiwe. , ekungekho lula ukufumanisa. Nangona kunjalo, amaRoma aqala ukuyisebenzisa ukuyiphumeza kubo bonke ubukhosi; babeyindlela yokubala kwaye bayiseka kuyo yonke imisebenzi enxulumene nezorhwebo kunye nemathematics.

Kwiminyaka ephakathi

Emva kokuwa kobukhosi, iimpembelelo zamanani zaqhubeka kumaXesha Aphakathi, yabonakaliswa iminyaka emininzi, ngenxa yoko ukusetyenziswa kwabo kwakulawulwa kwaye kwakunyanzelekile ukuba bazisebenzise kwizihloko zeencwadi nakwimibhalo yexesha. Ngokufika kweenkophe baqala ukuzilungisa kwaye bazongeza kumagama ezihloniphekileyo.

Impembelelo yaqhubeka kuzo zonke iinkulungwane; Ngale ndlela kwaye ngexesha lomnqamlezo kude kufike ukufika kolawulo kuyo yonke iYurophu, iAsia kunye nakuMbindi Mpuma, iinkosana, ookumkani, iinkosi kunye neenkokheli basebenzise ihlelo lamanani amaRoma, ngaloo ndlela befuna ukunika amagama abo ubukho obungakumbi; njengomzekelo sinoAlexander II, uLouis XV, uPopu John XXIII, kunye nenani elingenasiphelo lezenkolo kunye nezopolitiko abazisebenzisayo njengohlobo lwamandla.

Inkulungwane ye-XNUMX kunye nexesha lethu.

Iminyaka emininzi yayithathwa njengokusetyenziswa kwayo kuncwadi, isayensi, inkolo kunye nezopolitiko, ngaphandle kokuphulukana nexabiso layo. Imisebenzi emininzi eluntwini iyisebenzisela ukubiza indawo yesibini okanye yesithathu yeencwadi, edlala phakathi kweminye imisebenzi. Kwi-cinema isetyenziswa ngokubanzi ukubiza izihloko zeefilimu eziqhubeka nesaga.

Icawa yamaKatolika iyigcinile kangangeenkulungwane kwaye sijonga indlela ihlelo loopopu elihamba kunye negama, uJohn Paul II, uFelipe VI, uPaul VI kunye no-Benedict XVI wakutshanje ke baqhubeka nokuba secaleni kwethu kwaye kubonakala ngathi Sebenzisa unyamezelo kubukho boluntu.

Izixhobo

Amanani aseRoma ali-12 achongwe ngenene ngoonobumba u-I, II, III, V. X, C, MD, ukudityaniswa kwezi leta kuvumela ukunika amanani apho kugqitywe khona ngenene ukuba zithini iinombolo zamaRoma kwaye zezantoni, ngendlela; Umzekelo, indibaniselwano nganye yenziwa ngoonobumba abongezelelweyo ukuze bafumane elona xabiso.

Unobumba ngamnye ubekwa ukusuka ekhohlo ukuya ekunene, kwaye iodolo imisela ukuba amaxabiso angongezwa okanye asuswe; Xa unobumba omnye okanye engaphezulu ibekwe emva kweyona inkulu, eli xabiso kufuneka lisuswe, umzekelo; inani u-6 limelwe ngonobumba u-5 kunye no-1 (VI) xa edibene naye unika u-6, ukuba unobumba "I" sele ebekwe phambi kuka "V" kufanele ukuba abe ngu: 4 = IV.

Into efanayo iyenzeka ngamanani amakhulu, apho inani elandulelayo lifikelela kwisigqibo sokufumana ixabiso, kule meko ukuba sibeka i-XXI, kufuneka sidibanise u-10 kabini kunye no-1, sifumane ixabiso lama-21; Ngaphandle koko, ukuba sibeka i-IXX, sithatha u-1 ukuya ku-20 sifumane u-19.

Kwimeko yamanani amakhulu kuno-9999, umgca ongezantsi othe tyaba wongezwa phezulu kwileta ukuba inyuswe nge-100 okanye ngaphezulu kwewaka. La manani kunqabile ukuba asetyenziswe kwaye awanalo naluphi na uhlobo lwesicelo, kuba ukuzifunda kunzima kakhulu.

Ukuba ufuna ukufumana ulwazi oluthe kratya olunxulumene noku nezinye izihloko, siyakumema ukuba ulandele eli khonkco lilandelayo Umdibaniso wamanani: izibalo ezilula zokudityaniswa.