La ukubola kwamanani Inomsebenzi wemathematika apho inani lendalo okanye eliphambili libola lisebenzisa izahlulo okanye polynomial okanye imisebenzi yengcambu eyongeziweyo, namhlanje siza kukuxelela ukuba yenziwa njani.

Ukubola kwamanani

Yinkqubo yemathematika esivumela ukuba siqwalasele indlela elinokwahlulwa ngayo okanye ukubola kwenani. Ukulungiselela le nto, iinkqubo zokongeza, ukuphinda-phinda kunye nokuhlulahlula zisetyenziswa; Nangona kunjalo zininzi iinkqubo apho ukubola kunokwenziwa ngeenkqubo ezithile

Namhlanje siza kubona kuphela umthambo wokubola kwamanani usebenzisa ezona fom zilula, ukuze umfundi aqonde ukuba iqulathe ntoni kwaye kunokwenzeka njani ukuba azenze ezi khomishini.

Ukudibanisa

Amanani endalo angachithwa ngokudibanisa, oko kukuthi, ibonakaliswa njengesixa esiphindwe kabini okanye nangaphezulu: ngale ndlela, ukubola kwawo kulungile kakhulu ngokongeza amanani adibanisa ukuya kwixabiso le-5; Umzekelo: 2 + 3 = 5, okanye 1 + 4 = 5.

Indlela inani elibola ngayo kusetyenziswa iseshoni ibizwa ngokuba sisongezo. Nganye kwezi ndlela yokubhala inani u-5 yinto esiza kuyibiza ngokuba kukudibanisa okongezayo. Kwimeko yamanani iidesimali Ukubola kwahlukile kodwa siza kubona kamva.

La ukubola kwenani eliyintloko o ngokwendalo kwenziwa ngokubhala ixabiso lendawo yenani ngalinye, kungabandakanywa inombolo (0), ukuze amanani anokuvela kwimisebenzi yokongeza ukufumana iziphumo eziyimfuneko ziya kunikwa; njengoko sibonile kumzekelo wenombolo 5. Kodwa masijonge kumzekelo obanzi ukuqonda ngcono ingcaciso:

Inkqubo yenziwa kuthathelwa ingqalelo amanani ukusuka ekunene ukuya ekhohlo kwaye kuqala ngeyunithi, xa inani lisisiqingatha, kungenjalo iyaqhubeka ngeshumi, ikhulu, iyunithi yewaka, ishumi lamawaka, ikhulu lamawaka, iyunithi yezigidi, ke ukuba iyunithi iphindaphindwe ngenkqubo yokubala.

239 = (2 x 100) + (3 x 10) + (9 x 1) = 200 + 30 + 9.

4893 = (4 x 1000) + (8 x 100) + (9 x 10) + (3 x 1) = 4000 + 800 + 90 + 3.

865236 = (8 x 100000) + (6 x 10000) + (5 x 1000) + (2 x 100) + (3 x 10) + (6 x 800000) + 60000 = 5000 + 200 + 30 + 6 + XNUMX + XNUMX.

Iipolynomials

Ukubola kwenani le-polynomial yinkqubo esetyenzisiweyo ukubonisa inani elichaziweyo njengesixa, ngokufanayo kakhulu kwisongezo; Kodwa kule meko, inani ngalinye elongeziweyo linani eli liphindaphindwe ngamandla ka-1, apho i-exponent iyiyunithi yokuthabatha kwindawo ekuhlala kuyo ixabiso eliphindaphindayo.

Kule meko, amaxabiso afunyenweyo adityaniswa ngendlela yokuma ngokwamanani, amanani eziqalo zamanani eziphumo anokugqitywa ngoonothi, ukuze bonke babe nenani elifanayo lamanani edesimali. Kodwa masibone ngomzekelo wendlela olwenziwa ngayo olu msebenzi:

Kuqala, inani lahlulwe kwelona nani lincinci siphambili esilifumanayo, isiphumo esibekiweyo sibekwa phantsi kwenombolo, ukuba sifuna ukuqhubeka nokubola, sidibanisa ezinye ii-primes kule quotient ingezantsi ngenani elifanayo.

Xa inani eliphambili lingasenakho ukwahlulwahlulwa, lahlulwe ngenani eliyinkunzi elifezekisiweyo. Iziphumo ziluthotho lwamanani aphambili abonisa ukubola kwenani lokuqala.

Olunye uhlengahlengiso

Ukubola kwamanani endalo kunokuboniswa nangezinye iindlela. Enye yazo kukudityaniswa kwamandla amabini, nakwindlela eyandisiweyo yokongeza kunye nemveliso yezinto eziphambili. Masibone ngemizekelo esithetha ngayo:

Umzekelo, inani u-7 lilingana nenani elingu-111, kuba u-7 = (2 ukuya ku-2 = 4) + (2 ukuya ku-1 = 2) + (2 ukuya ku-0 = 1), isiphumo esingu-7. Kubalulekile ukuba wazi ukuba amanani endalo ngawona asisiseko kwaye aziwa kubo bonke, nangona kunjalo imeko iba nzima xa sisazi amanani angaqhelekanga, amanani apheleleyo kunye nomrhumo.

Ukubola njengemveliso

Inani lendalo lichazwa njengemveliso yamanani aphambili (Besesiliphakamisile). Emva koko siza kubona ifom eyandisiweyo, Oko kukuthi, kunokwenzeka njani ukubola kwamaxabiso xa sisebenzisa amanye amanani aphambili, ukuze ukubola kwawo kube lelo nani liphindaphindwe ngo-1.

Ngaphandle koko, inani eliphambili kufuneka lahlulwe lelo lahlulahlulwayo, ngaphandle kwenani lamaxesha athathiweyo ukufumana inombolo yokuqala. Masibone oku kulandelayo Usebenzisa ukubola kwamanani aphambili:

5 = 5 x 1.

15 = 3 x 15.

28 = 2 x 2 x 7.

624 = 2 x 312 = 2 x 2 x 156 = 2 x 2 x 2 x 78 = 2 x 2 x 2 x 2 x 39 = 2 x 2 x 2 x 2 x 2 x 13

Kule meko ukubola kwenzekile kusetyenziswa amandla ka-2.Yiphi indlela elula kwaye sinokufika phantse ekuhleni ngokupheleleyo kwenani.

Ukubekwa njengamagunya e-2

Le ndlela yokubola isebenzisa amagunya ama-2. Ukuze naliphi na inani lendalo libonakaliswe njengamandla ama-2 ukufezekisa ukubola kwenani elichaziweyo. Makhe sijonge lo mzekelo ulandelayo:

1 = 2 iphakanyiselwe ku-0.

2 = 2 iphakanyiselwe ku-1.

3 = (2 kumandla ka-1) + (2 kumandla ka-0).

4 = 2 iphakanyiselwe ku-2.

5 = (2 kumandla a 2) + (2 kumandla ka-0).

6 = (2 kumandla ka-2) + (2 kumandla ka-1).

7 = (2 ukuya 2 amandla) + (2 ukuya 1 amandla) + (2 ukuya 0 amandla).

8 = (2 kumandla 3).

15 = (2 ukuya kwi-3 yamandla) + (2 ukuya kwi-2 yamandla) + (2 ukuya kwi-1 yamandla) + (2 ukuya kwi-0 yamandla).

Ukubola kwamanani abantwana

Ukugqiba sibonisa indlela abantwana abanokufunda ngayo ukubola kwenani. Kwindawo yokuqala, uqala ngokwenza uhlobo lomdlalo apho umntu ngamnye othatha inxaxheba anikwa izinti, nganye inamanani.

Umntwana ngamnye kufuneka abale udibaniso okanye ukuthabatha analo kwinduku, ayibeke kumbhobho apho eneziphumo zokuhlinzwa kwakhe. Enye yeemeko ngaphambi kokuqala umdlalo, kukuba umntwana ngamnye kufuneka acace malunga nokongeza nokukhupha; Ngale ndlela banokufunda kumntwana omncinci ukuba angabola njani amanani.

Eminye imidlalo ukuqala ukuchaza ukubola kwamanani, kwenziwa ngokuqikelela kwiphepha apho amanani achithakeleyo ukusuka kwinani. Umntwana unokusebenzisa nasiphi na isicwangciso-qhinga ukumisela amanani afunyenweyo, kulungile kwaye kusebenza njengesiqhelo sokukhumbula amanye amanani; Ngale ndlela bayakuziqhelanisa nokudibanisa ukuthabatha ukubola.

Funda ngakumbi ngale nkqubo yezibalo ngokundwendwela ibhlog elandelayo Ukuphindaphinda ngamanani edesimali