Ukwazi njani ukuba ibhayibhile inokuthenjwa. Xa sithetha ngebhayibhile, sithetha ngenye ye ezona ncwadi zibalulekileyo embalini zobuntu. Oko kube ngumphumo wayo, wokuba uninzi lwemithetho esilawulayo, kunye nokuziphatha kwethu nendlela esiphila ngayo, kugcina ukukhumbula okubalulekileyo kuko konke oko kunikelayo.

Nangona kunjalo, ukusukela kwinkulungwane yeshumi elinesixhenxe, emva kokuvela kwesayensi kunye nokuzalwa kwenyani, abantu abaninzi bayazibuza malunga ubunyani bamabali Oku kuyabalisa.

Abantu babuza imibuzo enje: Kutheni le nto sinokuyithemba ingxelo yebhayibhile? Ngaba iBhayibhile yaxokiswa ngenjongo yokukhohlisa abantu? Ngaba iingxelo zebhayibhile ziziphumo zentsomi?

Ukuphendula lo mbuzo siza kubonisa uthotho iimpikiswano esekwe kwindlela yangoku yembali, kuba ukuthembeka okungokwembali kwezibhalo kufuneka kungqinwe ngeendlela ezifanayo ezisetyenzisiweyo ukungqina naluphi na uxwebhu lwakudala.

Nangona kunjalo, ngaphambi kokuba siqale dissertation, kufuneka siqale ekuqaleni kwaye sichaze ukuba yintoni na iBhayibhile kwaye ivela phi.

Sicebisa ukuba uhlale phantsi kuba inqaku lide kakhulu… Singaqala?

Ukwazi njani ukuba ibhayibhile inokuthenjwa: Ithini iBhayibhile?

Nangona abantu abaninzi becinga IBhayibhile njengencwadi, ngokwenene iyi ingqokelela yeencwadi ebhalwe ngababhali abohlukeneyo ngaphezulu kwe- 1500 iminyaka. Lilonke, bathathe inxaxheba Ababhali abangama-40 abavela kwimimandla eyahlukeneyo, iinkcubeko kunye nemibutho. Ukusuka kookumkani okanye amagosa aseburhulumenteni ukuya kumafama okanye kubelusi. Kwakubhalwe kwi I-3 iilwimi ezahlukeneyo (IsiHebhere, isiAramiki nesiGrike samaGrike).

Ukusuka kuko konke ukwahluka kwababhali kunye neenkcubeko, kwavela umbono oqhelekileyo: ukukhululwa komntu nguThixo.

Ibhayibhile ingambhida umfundi ongenamava ngokusilela ukuqonda ukuba, ngokubanzi, ayilandeli ulandelelwano lwamaxesha. I ITestamente Endala yaqokelelwa ngokwezihloko zilandelayo:

  1. ITora.
  2. Uncwadi.
  3. Iziprofeto.
  4. Ezinye iincwadi zembali.

Emva koko, isasazwa ngamaqelana ngokulandelelana kwezi ndidi.

El ITestamente eNtsha iqala ngolu hlobo lulandelayo:

  1. Iincwadi ezintathu zeVangeli ezifanayo (ezifanayo).
  2. Incwadi kaJuan.
  3. IZenzo Zabapostile, ekukholelwa ukuba kukuqhubeka kwencwadi kaLuka.
  4. Iileta zikaPawulos ziza kwiTestamente eNtsha.
  5. Iileta zabanye abapostile.
  6. Incwadi yeSityhilelo.

La IVulgate yesiLatin yaba yincwadi yokuqala ukushicilelwa. Ukongeza, iBhayibhile yeyona ncwadi ishicilelweyo ukuza kuthi ga ngoku kwaye isasazwe eyona inkulu el mundo.

Nangona ekuqaleni ibibhalwe kwipapyrus, ekufuneka ikhutshelwe kwaye ikhutshelwe kwakhona kangangamakhulu eminyaka, ngaphambi kokuba kwenziwe umatshini wokushicilela, khange ichaphazele isimbo sayo, ukuchaneka, okanye ubukho bayo. Xa kuthelekiswa nezinye iincwadi zamandulo, iBhayibhile ikwenzile oko ubungqina obungaphezulu malunga nemibhalo-ngqangi kunemibhalo emininzi kuncwadi lwamandulo.

La Impembelelo enkulu yeZibhalo Ezingcwele phantse kuzo zonke iinkalo zempucuko yaseNtshona kuye kwabonakala. Ukusuka kwezopolitiko ukuya kwezenzululwazi, kwizifundo zobugcisa nakwezobuchwephesha, ukusuka kwezobugcisa ukuya emculweni, ibhayibhile iyeyona nto iphambili eyavula ingqondo yaseNtshona. Impembelelo yeemfundiso zebhayibhile kwaye, ngaphezulu kwako konke, ibali likaYesu, wabeka iziseko zempucuko yaseNtshona. 

Sele sixoxe ngokubanzi ukuba iyintoni kanye kanye iBhayibhile. Ngoku lixesha lokubhengeza ukuba zeziphi iingxoxo ezibonisa ukuthembeka kwazo.

Sazi njani ukuba ibhayibhile inokuthenjwa?Ukwazi njani ukuba ibhayibhile inokuthenjwa

Ukuvavanya ukuthembeka kwembali, kufuneka sisebenzise iindlela ezisetyenziswa ngulo naliphi na ibali elidumileyo ukungqina ubunyani boxwebhu:

  • Uvavanyo lweBhayibhile: Uqinisekiso lwexwebhu luqinisekiswa ngendlela ekhutshelwe yahanjiswa ngayo.
  • Ubungqina bangaphakathi: igqiba ukuba ababhali abohlukeneyo balandela umgca osengqiqweni okanye ukuba kukho iimpazamo ezibi kakhulu.
  • Uvavanyo lobungqina bangaphandle: Imisela ukuba kukho ezinye iimvavanyo ngaphandle kwezo zikhankanywe ngababhali beBhayibhile.
  • Archeology: isayensi efunda utshintsho olwenzeka eluntwini kwizinto ezifumanekayo.

Ubungqina beBhayibhile kwibhayibhile

Ukusukela nokanye sinamaxwebhu okuqalaYintoni ukuthembakala kweekopi esinazo malunga nenani lemibhalo ebhaliweyo kunye nexesha eliphakathi kwekopi yantlandlolo kunye nekopi esele ikho?

Vavanya i umgangatho weekopi iba yinto ebalulekileyo yokujonga umgangatho woxwebhu, kwaye iikopi ezingaphezulu ziyafumaneka ukuze zifundwe ngcono, kuba ngokuthelekisa iikopi kunye nenye kwimbali, iimpazamo kunye notshintsho olunokwenzeka kunokufunyanwa ngokulula. Ngesi sizathu, ixesha elifutshane phakathi kwabo, ixesha elincinci lokutshintsha iitekisi, kwaye kufutshane nembali yenyani iikopi ziba ngcono.

Okwangoku, singatsho ukuba ngaphezulu kwe-24.000 iikopi zeTestamente eNtsha zifunyenwe, ezahlulwe ngolu hlobo lulandelayo:

  •  Imibhalo-ngqangi yesiGrike engama-5.300 XNUMX yeTestamente eNtsha.
  • Ngaphezulu Imibhalo-ngqangi engama-10,000 XNUMX yeVulgate yesiLatin kwaye ubuncinci
  • 9,300 kwezinye iinguqulelo ezindala.

Alukho olunye uxwebhu kwimbali yakudala olusondela kula manani. Xa kuthelekiswa, IHomer Iliad Kwinqanaba lesibini, kuphela Imibhalo-ngqangi engama-643 ifunyenwe ukuza kuthi ga ngoku. Umbhalo wokuqala ogqityiweyo nolondoloziweyo kaHomer osusela kwinkulungwane yeshumi elinesithathu. Alukho olunye uxwebhu lwakudala olunesikhewu esincinci phakathi kweekopi kunye nezentsusa.

El owona mbhalo mdala womnqophiso omtsha, ebizwa ngokuba yi-p52, iqulethe iinxalenye zeVangeli kaYohane kunye nemihla kwisithathu sokuqala senkulungwane yesibini AD, ngaphantsi kweminyaka engama-90 emva kokubhalwa kweVangeli kaYohane ngeminyaka yoo-XNUMXs kwinkulungwane yokuqala, Ukongeza, imisongo engaphezulu kwama-XNUMX isusela kwixesha eliphakathi ekupheleni kwenkulungwane yesi-XNUMX nasekuqaleni kweyesithathu. Eminye yale papyri iqulethe iziqwenga zeencwadi zeTestamente eNtsha.

Kwelinye icala, izifundo zakutshanje zibonisa ukufumanisa okumnandi; i UGqirha Gary Habermas, Yatsho ukuba a umbhalo-ngqangi wakutshanje ifunyenwe eYiputa ukuba Inxalenye yeVangeli kaMarko yahlalutywa yingcali yezinto zakudala eyabhala umhla wesiqwengana njenge kubhalwe phakathi kuka-80-110 AD. Ukuba lo mhla uyagcinwa, kuyakubonisa ukuba iVangeli kaMarko yayijikeleza kwinkulungwane yokuqala, icutha ixesha eliphakathi ukufa zikaYesu kunye nobungqina obubhaliweyo. Ngamafutshane, iya kuba yi- ubungqina bembali obuya kunika amangqina okuzibonela Imbali yakudala yobomi, ukufa nokuvuka kukaYesu.

Kuya kufuneka sikhumbule ukuba, xa kuthelekiswa eyona misebenzi iphambili yakudala kunye neTestamente eNtsha, eyokugqibela ihlangabezana neendlela zovavanyo ezingqongqo ngokungqongqo kunaye nawuphi na omnye umsebenzi wakudala.

Ukuvavanya ubungqina bangaphakathi beBhayibhile ukubona ukuba bunokuthenjwa na

La ubungqina bangaphakathi usinika ngokwaneleyo Ulwazi oluyinyani malunga nokuthembeka kweakhawunti yebhayibhile. Esi sikhombisi simisela ukuba kukho ubuqhetseba, iimpazamo okanye ubuxoki ngabom ngababhali kwizinto ezaziwayo. Gcina ukhumbula ukuba ubunzima kunye neengxaki ezingasonjululwanga akuthethi ukuba ziimpazamo. Impazamo kukungangqinelani okukhoyo ngaphandle kwesithunzi sokuthandabuza.

Into ebaluleke kakhulu yile iingxelo zamangqina okuzibonela. Kulo naluphi na uphando lolwaphulo-mthetho, ubungqina bokuzibonela kulwaphulo-mthetho lubalulekile ekuphandeni inyani, kwaye nophando lwethu alufani. Naziphi na iziganeko zembali ezinamangqina okuzibonela ziye zithembeke ngakumbi ngokwembali, njengoko zivelisa iiakhawunti ezizimeleyo ezinokujongana nazo.

Ababhali beTestamente eNtsha babhala njengo amangqina okuzibonela okanye kulwazi lokuqala, ngezantsi siza kubona umzekelo:

 Kuba bebebaninzi abenze ingxelo elungelelanisiweyo yeziganeko ezenzekileyo phakathi kwethu, njengoko abo babengamangqina okuzibonela nabaphathiswa belizwi belisasaza kuthi kwasekuqaleni, kwabonakala kum kulungile ngokulinganayo, emva kophando olucokisekileyo lwayo yonke into ukusuka kuyo imvelaphi, ndikunika ngokubhaliweyo, oHloniphekileyo uTheophilus, intetho ebekekileyo.

ULuka 1: 1-3

Ngenxa yokuba singawazisanga kuni amandla nokufika kweNkosi yethu uYesu Kristu, silandela iintsomi eziyilwe bubulumko;

Eyesi-2 kaPetros 1: 16

… Esikubonileyo nesikuvileyo, siyakuxela kuni, ukuze nani nibe nobudlelane nathi. Ngoku ubudlelane bethu bunaye uYise noNyana wakhe uYesu Kristu.

1 Yohane 1: 3

Madoda akwaSirayeli, phulaphulani la mazwi: UYesu waseNazarete, indoda eyamkelweyo nguThixo phambi kwenu, ngemimangaliso, nangezimanga, nangemiqondiso ayenzileyo uThixo phakathi kwenu ngaye, njengokuba nisazi nina ...

KwiZenzo 2:22

 Lowo ukubonileyo oku wangqina, ubungqina bakhe buyinyaniso; Ndiyazi ukuba uthetha inyani, ukuze nani nikholwe.

Yohane 19: 35

“Ngomnyaka weshumi elinesihlanu wobukumkani bukaTibheriyo Kesare, uPontiyo Pilato eyirhuluneli yelakwaYuda, uHerode umlawuli waseGalili, umntakwabo uFilipu umlawuli wezithili zase-Ithurea naseTraconites, noLisaniya umlawuli wase-Abilene…

ULuka 3: 1

Kwelinye icala, ye Abapostile abali-12, ngaphandle kukaYuda, 10 Babulawa ngenxa yesigidimi abasishumayelayo, kwaye uJuan wangcungcuthekiswa kanobom waza wavalelwa ngenxa yayo. Ngaba kunokwenzeka ukuba ukholelwe ukuba abantu abali-11 babekulungele ukuncama ubomi babo ukuxhasa ubuxoki bokwenza kwabo?

Esinye isiqwenga sobungqina bembali esisinceda ukuba siqonde ukuba ibhayibhile inokuthenjwa na yile nto ibizwa ngokuba yinkxaso engqina engaziwayo, ngoobani Iiakhawunti ezizimeleyo kwiTestamente eNtsha ngokungazenzisiyo bagqibezelane. Umzekelo, kuMateyu 8:16 sinesi sicatshulwa silandelayo: «Kuthe ke kwakuhlwa, kwaziswa kuye into eninzi yabaphethwe ziidemon;

Umbuzo uvela, kutheni ulinde kude kuhlwe ukuzisa abo bafuna ukuphiliswa?

Impendulo ifumaneka kuMarko 1:21; ULuka 4:31. » Kuba kwakungoMgqibelo.

KuMateyu 26: 67-68, sibona amaYuda ebetha uYesu ngaphakathi ityala kwaye esithi : "Ukuba unguye uKrestu, profeta ukuba ngubani okubethileyo."

Oku kusenokubonakala kungaqhelekanga, kuba uYesu wayemi phambi kwabo kwaye wayekwazi ukubona ukuba ungubani na. Kodwa kuLuka 22: 63-65, sibona ukuba uYesu wayevalwe amehlo xa bamzisa apho.

Olu hlobo lokungqinelana luqhelekile kubungqina bamangqina ozibonela ohlukeneyo, umntu ngamnye uxela umbono wakhe kwinyani efanayo, kodwa unika ukubaluleka ngakumbi kwiinkcukacha A okanye B. Oku kuyangqina ukuthembeka kobungqina, iyenza inyaniseke ngakumbi, njengeziqwenga zepuzzle, ethi xa zidityanisiwe zenze ibali lonke.

Yiyo kanye le Inkqubo efanayo nomcuphi angalindela ukuyifumana kwiqela lamangqina okuzibonela kulwaphulo-mthetho. Kuba ukuba babebaliswe ngendlela efanayo, kuyacaca ukuba ngebavumelene omnye nomnye, kwaye ukuba amabali ebengekho ndawo kakhulu, baya kuba bayaxoka.

Ababhali beTestamente eNtsha bakwabandakanya iinkcukacha ezihlazo ngeziqu zabo. Utyekelo lwababhali abaninzi kolu hlobo lwembali kukushiya ecaleni yonke into ejongela phantsi imbonakalo yabo kwaye yonakalise isimilo sabo. Ibizwa ngokuba "sisikhalazo sehlazo."

Ngapha koko, abaniki kuphela iinkcukacha ezihlazo ngeziqu zabo, kodwa kananjalo ngoYesu. Zifumaneka kuyo yonke iTestamente Entsha. U-Yesu wayecingelwa "engasaphili engqondweni yakhe" lusapho lwakhe, wabonwa njengomntu oxokayo nomqhekeki, washiywa ngabalandeli bakhe waphantse waxulutywa ngamatye ngamanye amaxesha, wabizwa "enxilile" kwaye "enedemon", "uphambene." Ekugqibeleni, wabethelelwa emnqamlezweni njengesaphuli-mthetho kunye nezihange ezibini. Ukuba ababhali beTestamente eNtsha babefuna ukubonisa wonke umntu ukuba uYesu wayenguThixo, ukumkani wakwaSirayeli, uMesiya othanjisiweyo, kwakutheni ukuze bangazisusi iimeko ekubonakala ngathi baphikisana nazo?

Ngayo yonke le datha, sinokufumana umbono wokuba zikhona ubungqina obaneleyo bangaphakathi Ukuchaza ingxelo yebhayibhile njenge zembali kwaye ziyinyani.

Ubungqina bobungqina bangaphandle obuvela eBhayibhileni

Olu vavanyo lujolise ekuqinisekiseni ukuba kukho imithombo yolwazi ngaphandle kwamaxwebhu ebhayibhile ukuqinisekisa ukuba ibhayibhile ithembekile. Ngamanye amagama, yeyiphi eminye imithombo ekhoyo, ngaphandle koncwadi oluvavanywayo, eqinisekisa ubunyani bayo, ukuthembeka nokunyaniseka kwayo?

Emva koko siza kubonisa ifayile ye- obona bungqina bangaphandle bubaluleke kakhulu:

IPapias yaseHierapolis

U-Eusebius waseKesareya, enokuthi ithathelwe ingqalelo njenge- Utata wembali yeCawa, kwimbali yakhe ye-Ecclesiastical History, ebhalwe malunga no-325 AD, igcina imibhalo kaPapias, ubhishophu waseHierapolis (130 AD), loo Papias ezifunyenwe kuMpostile uMdala uJohn. Phakathi kwale mibhalo sinokufumana ezi ngxelo zilandelayo:

“Indoda endala nayo yayidla ngokuthi: 'UMarko, ekubeni wayetolikela uPetros, wabhala ngokunyanisekileyo konke oko (uPetros) wakuthethayo, nokuba yayingamazwi okanye imisebenzi kaKristu; nangona kunjalo, akenzanga njalo ngokolandelelwano lwamaxesha. Kungenxa yokuba ebengayiphulaphuli ngokwakhe iNkosi, kwaye ebengekho naye; kodwa emva koko, njengoko senditshilo, wayehamba noPeter, owayeziguqula iimfundiso zakhe ukuba ziyimfuneko, hayi ngokungathi wayelungiselela ukudityaniswa kwamazwi eNkosi. Ke, uMarcos wayengaphazami, emva koko wabhala ezinye izinto njengoko yena (Peter) wabakhankanyayo; kuba unikele ingqalelo kuyo yonke le nto, hleze ashiye nantoni na ayivileyo, okanye afake naziphi na iingxelo ezingeyonyani koko akubhalileyo. "

UIrenaeus waseLyon

UIrenaeus, ubishophu waseLyons (180 AD), wayenjalo umfundi kaPolycarp, ubhishophu waseSmirna, owabulawelwa ukholo ngo AD 156 Ukongeza, wayengumKristu iminyaka engama-86 kwaye umfundi kampostile uYohane. UIrenaeus wabhala:

» Siqine kakhulu isiseko esiphumeleyo kwezi Vangeli, kangangokuba nabaqhekeki ngokwabo banikela ubungqina bexhasa ezi ncwadi kwaye, kuzo, nganye yazo izabalazela ukuseka imfundiso yayo ethile ”.

UIrenaeus, kwakuloo ncwadi inye, uyikhabile imbono "yezinye iincwadi zevangeli", esitsho njengokuba sisazi namhlanje ukuba ziivangeli ezi-4 kuphela ezamkelweyo. “Njengokuba kukho iimbombo zone zomhlaba apho sihlala khona, kunye nemimoya yomine yendalo yonke, nanjengoko iBandla lisasazekile emhlabeni wonke, kwaye iVangeli iyintsika nesiseko seCawa kunye nempefumlo yobomi, ngokufanayo, ke ngoko, kuyindalo ukuba igospile ineentsika ezine […] [uThixo] usinike ivangeli ikwimo ephindwe kane, imo ebanjwe nguMoya ”.

 UClement waseRoma

UClement waseRoma, malunga ne-95 AD., bhala ibe nye incwadi eya kwicawa yaseKorinte ukusombulula impikiswano ehlala iveliswa yicawa kuloo ndawo. Nabani na oqhelene neeleta zikaPawulos eziya kwabaseKorinte uyazi ukuba ibandla apho bekusoloko kuthathwa "njengengxaki". Kucingelwa ukuba lo Clement uyakhankanywa kwincwadi eya kwabaseFilipi 4: 3. Kule leta, uClement wenza izingqinisiso ezininzi kwizicatshulwa zeBhayibhile ezivela kwiTestamente eNdala neNtsha, eqinisekisa iimfundiso zikaYesu zamva nje.

UIgnatius wakwa-Antiyokwe

UIgnatius (70-110 AD) wayengubhishophu wakwa-Antiyokwe, emva kokubulawa ngenxa yokholo lwakhe kuKrestu. Wayebazi bonke abapostile kwaye wayengumfundi kaPolycarp, owayengumfundi othe ngqo wompostile uYohane. UIgnatius, esendleleni eya ekufeleni ukholo, wabhala iileta ezisixhenxe eziya kwiicawa ezikwingingqi yakhe, kwezi leta wenza iikowuti ezininzi kwiincwadi zeTestamente eNtsha.

IPolycarp

UPolycarp (70-156 AD), wafela ukholo eneminyaka engama-86, wayenjalo Ubhishophu waseSmirna kunye nomfundi wompostile uYohane, waphinda wacaphula kaninzi eBhayibhileni kwimibhalo yakhe.

Abanye ababhali bePatristic

Kukho ababhali abaliqela bexesha elaziwa ngokuba yiPatristics nabo bacaphula iTestamente eNtsha, phakathi kwabo

  • Ileta kaBharnabhas (malunga ne-70 AD).
  • Umfundisi, ovela eHermas (malunga ne-95 AD).
  • UDiatasseran, nguTaciano (malunga ne-170 AD).
  • UClement waseAlexandria (Ngo-150-212 AD).
  • UTertullian (Ngo-160-220 AD) owayengumdala wecawe eCarthage, ebekhe wakhankanya iTestamente eNtsha ngaphezulu kwamaxesha angama-7.000, kuwo angama-3.800 XNUMX zizicatshulwa ezivela kwiiVangeli.
  • IHippolytus (Ngo-170-235 AD) owenza ngaphezu kwe-1300 ekubhekiswa kuyo kwiTestamente eNtsha.
  • UJustin Martyr (133 AD) owalwa noMarcion owayengumqhekeki ngokucaphula iTestamente eNtsha. UOrigen (185-254 AD), owayengumbhali ophumeleleyo, waye waqokelela imisebenzi engaphezu kwama-6.000. Ineempendulo ezingaphezu kwe-18.000 ezivela kwiTestamente eNtsha.

Kubo bonke usenokongeza amagama alandelayo:

  • UAugustine waseHippo.
  • Amabio.
  • Latvian.
  • IChrysostom.
  • UJerome.
  • Isitshixo samaRoma.
  • UAthanasius.
  • Ambrose waseMilan.
  • UCyril waseAlexandria.
  • UEfrayim umSiriya.
  • IHilary yasePoitiers
  • UGregory waseNisa.
  • njl ...

Ukongeza kuzo zonke ezi zikhombisi, kukho uxwebhu olwaziwayo njenge i-Didache, ebhalwe phakathi kweminyaka Ngama-60 nama-70 AD, kwingingqi yeSyria okanye i-Egypt, ibonisa ukuba iimfundiso ezininzi zobuKristu ezisekwe kwiTestamente eNtsha, zazisele zenziwa luluntu lwamaKristu ukusukela kwinkulungwane yokuqala.

Ngale ndlela kuyaboniswa ukuba kwiminyaka embalwa emva kokufa kukaYesu, iimfundiso eziqulathwe kwi iincwadi zevangeli kunye neeleta ukusuka ePablo sele bezijikeleza kuluntu, efundisa amaKristu okuqala ngeendlela ezifanelekileyo malunga noko kwafundiswa nguYesu.

Ubungqina bubonisa ngokucacileyo oko ulwazi oluqulethwe kwiTestamente eNtsha Igcinwe ngendlela efanayo kwiinkulungwane nakwiinkulungwane, njengoko bekukhankanyiwe, ikhutshelwa kwaye isasazwa kwihlabathi liphela. Ukuba iBandla liyitshintshile iBhayibhile njengoko besitsho, bekuya kufuneka ukuba liguqule amakhulu amawaka ezi zicatshulwa.

Njengokuba iTestamente eNtsha iyonke icatshulwe ngooyise becawe kwiinkulungwane zokuqala zembali yobuKrestu, ezincwadini nasezincwadini, konke oku phambi kweBhunga laseNicea (325 AD), kuyaphela kuphelisa ubuxoki obadalwa yiBhayibhile. Ngeli xesha, okanye ukuba isithixo sikaYesu saqanjwa kamva.

Akukho msebenzi wakudala woncwadi usondela kumanani embali eTestamente eNtsha, uhlalutyo ngononophelo lobungqina balatha ngqo kulo ukuthembeka kombhalo webhayibhile.

Ukwazi njani ukuba ibhayibhile inokuthenjwa ngeArchaeology

La inzululwazi ngezinto zakudala isebe lezenzululwazi elifuna ukufumana imeko yezembali kunye nenkcubeko yabantu bakudalangokusebenzisa ukumbiwa nokufundwa kwamaxwebhu ashiyekileyo. Le nzululwazi incede ekuchongeni iindawo nasekumiseleni imihla, ichonga ubukho beempawu zembali ezazisaziwa ngaphambili kuphela ngeBhayibhile, inegalelo kulwazi olungcono ngamasiko neelwimi zakudala, iinkcubeko nezentlalo yabantu bakudala, kwaye kukhanyisa intsingiselo yamagama amaninzi ebhayibhile, kwandise ukuqonda kwethu ngamanqaku athile emfundiso kwiTestamente eNtsha, kwaye ngokuthe ngcembe bathulisa abagxeki abathile abasoloko bekuthandabuza ukuthembeka kweengxelo zebhayibhile.

Makhe sibone ezinye zezinto zakudala ezingqinayo ithembeke kangakanani ibhayibhile ngeendlela ezininzi. Ukubonisa ukuba akukho bungqina bunqabileyo obuxhasa iBhayibhile.

Ubungqina bamandulo: Indlela yokwazi ukuba iBhayibhile inokuthenjwa

Inqaku likaNjingalwazi uLawrence Mykytiuk lapapashwa ngo-2017 nguMbutho we-Biblical Archaeology, engqina ubuncinci abalinganiswa beBhayibhile abangama-53 abasuka kwiTestamente eNdala eziqinisekisiweyo zizinto ezifunyaniswe kwizinto zakudala. Phakathi kwabo kwakukho ookumkani bamandulo bakwaSirayeli abanjengo UDavide, u-Uziya noHezekiya, ababingeleli abakhulu UAzariya noHilekiya, phakathi kwe OoFaro base-Egypt, ookumkani basePersi, ama-Asiriya kunye namaBhabhiloni.

Ukufunyanwa kuye kwaba yomhla yaqinisekiswa Ngelo xesha iziganeko zebhayibhile zazibaliswa. Olu phononongo luluhlu lwazo zonke izinto ezifunyanisiweyo kunye nezalathiso zeBhayibhile. Ke ngoko, bubunye ubungqina bokuba ibhayibhile ithembeke kangakanani.

Amacwecwe e-Ebla

Ukufunyanwa kwezinto ezinomdla ezibonisa ukuba ibhayibhile inokuthenjwa kangakanani. Ukufunyanwa kwenziwa kumantla eSyria ngoonjingalwazi ababini abavela kwiDyunivesithi yaseRoma, i UGqr Paolo Matthiae, umembi wezinto zakudala, kunye noGqirha Giovanni Petinato, ingcali kwi-epigraphy. Ukusukela ngo-1974, baye bagrunjelwa kwaye bafunyanwa Amacwecwe ali-17.000 asusela ngexesha lokulawula kukaEbla. Izothatha ixesha ngaphambi kokuba kwenziwe uphando olunentsingiselo ukumisela ubudlelwane phakathi kwe-Ebla kunye nehlabathi lebhayibhile. Nangona kunjalo, amanye amagalelo axabisekileyo kugxeko lweBhayibhile sele enziwe.

Omnye umzekelo wegalelo lokufunyanwa kwe-Ebla KwiGenesis 14, isicatshulwa kangangeminyaka ebesithathwa njengesinokuthenjwa ngokwembali. Uloyiso luka-Abraham kuKedor-laomere nookumkani baseMesopotamiya luchazwe njengentsomi nezixeko ezihlanu zethafa (ISodom, neGomora, neAdama, neTsebhoyim neTsoware) njengeyimbali. Nangona kunjalo, oovimba be-Ebla babhekisa kwizixeko ezihlanu zethafa, kwaye icwecwe lidwelisa izixeko ngokulandelelana okufanayo kwiGenesis 14.

Imeko-bume eboniswa kumacwecwe abonisa Inkcubeko yexesha loosolusapho kwaye ichaza oko ngaphambi kwentlekele ebhalwe kwiGenesis. Ngomhla we-14, le ndawo yayingummandla ochumileyo, onenkqubela phambili kunye nenkqubela phambili, ekwabhalwa nayo kwiGenesis. Iitafile ze-Ebla zikwangqinisile unqulo loothixo bobuhedeni njengoBhahali, uDagoni noAshera,

Ketef Hinnom Amulets

I-Ketef Hinnom yenziwe ngothotho lwe Amagumbi okungcwaba, akumazantsi mpuma esiXeko esiDala saseYerusalem, endleleni eya eBhetelehem. Ngo-1979, abembi bezinto zakudala benza ukufumanisa okubalulekileyo: amacwecwe amabini esilivere asongwa kunye nemibhalo ebhalwe ngesiHebhere samandulo. Ezi zinto kukholelwa ukuba bezisetyenziswa njenge amakhubalo kunye nomhla ukususela ngenkulungwane ye-XNUMX BC. C. kwaye ziqwalaselwe Esinye sezibhalo ezindala zeBhayibhile. Kwelinye lamakhubalo kwakukho iTetragramma (YHVH), igama elingcwele likaThixo kwiBhayibhile yesiHebhere. Kwaye nentsikelelo yobubingeleli efumaneka kwiNumeri 6 INkosi ikusikelele ikugcine; Makabukhanyise uYehova ubusobakhe kuwe, akubabale; Inkosi mayibuphakamisele kuwe ubuso bayo, ikuphe uxolo ”.

Oku kufumanisa kubalulekile ukuphelisa izityholo zokuba iTestamente eNdala yabhalwa kamva, bubungqina obubambekayo Isalathiso kumbhalo webhayibhile wakudala kakhulu.

IBlack Obelisk kaShalmanasar III: Ukwazi njani ukuba ibhayibhile inokuthenjwa

Yiyo Izinto zakudala ezenziwe ngumenzi wezinto zakudala UHenry Layard wafunyanwa kwisixeko samandulo saseNineve. Ibhekisa kubalinganiswa beBhayibhile: Ukumkani u-hebrew jehu (2 Kumkani 9 neye-10). Isusela ku-841 a. C. kwaye okwangoku ikwiMyuziyam yaseBritane eLondon. Lo mzobo ubonisa umzobo kaKumkani uYehu equbuda phambi koShalmanasar III, enika irhafu, kwaye yingxelo ehambelana nezibhalo zeBhayibhile ze-2 Kumkani 10.

Imibhalo kaBhileham

Iziqwenga zeskripthi sesiAram zifunyenwe kwi Xelela u-allah (mhlawumbi isixeko sebhayibhile saseSukkot). Ngokudibeneyo bazisa isiqendu esivela kubomi "bukaBhileham unyana kaBhehore", mhlawumbi ikwangula Bhalam uchazwa yiBhayibhile kwiNumeri 22. Ezi zibhalo zisachaza omnye wemibono yakhe, ebonisa ukuba AmaKanan ayemkhumbula lo mprofeti. Ukuba uyazibuza ukuba wazi njani ukuba ibhayibhile ithembekile, le yenye impikiswano endaweni yayo.

UMerneptah Stele

Ikholamu yesikhumbuzo, yabhalwa malunga ne-1207 a. C, emele Uloyiso lomkhosi kaFaro Merneptah. I-Israel ikhankanywe njenge enye yeentshaba zase-Egypt kwixesha leBhayibhile labagwebi, elibonisa oko USirayeli wayesele ekho njengesizwe ngeli xesha, nto leyo eyathi yaphikiswa ngabaphengululi abaninzi. Kukuqala ukukhankanywa kwegama "uSirayeli" ngaphandle kweBhayibhile.

AmaHeti

Los AmaHeti badlale i- indima ephambili Kwimbali yeTestamente eNdala. Banxibelelana nabalinganiswa bebhayibhile ukusuka ku-Abraham ukuya kuSolomon. Bayakhankanywa kwi IGenesis 15:20 njengabantu ababehlala kwilizwe lakwaKanan. Eyoku-1 yooKumkani 10:29 irekhoda ukuba bathenga iinqwelo zokulwa namahashe kuKumkani uSolomon. AmaHeti aye amandla amakhulu kuMbindi Mpuma ukusuka ngo-1750 a. Kude kube ngu-1200 a. Kude kube sekupheleni kwenkulungwane ye-XNUMX, akukho nto yayisaziwa malunga namaHeti ngaphandle kweBhayibhile, kwaye abagxeki abaninzi babesithi bayilwe ngababhali beBhayibhile.

Nangona kunjalo ngo-1876, ukufumanisa okumangalisayo kuyitshintshe le mbono. Umphengululi wase-Bhritane ogama lingu A. H. Sayce wafumana imibhalo ekroliweyo ematyeni eTurkey. Wayekrokrela ukuba bangaluvavanyo lwesizwe samaHeti. Kwiminyaka elishumi kamva, kwafunyanwa amanye amacwecwe odongwe eTurkey, kwindawo ebizwa ngokuba yiBoghaz-koy.

Ingcali yaseJamani kwincwadi ebhalwe ngoonobumba abatsobhileyo, UHugo Winckler, waphanda amacwecwe kwaye waqala uhambo lwakhe oluya kwindawo ngo-1906. Ukombiwa kukaWinckler kutyhila iitempile ezintlanu, inqaba enqatyisiweyo kunye nemifanekiso eqingqiweyo emininzi. Kwipryry wafumana ngaphezulu kwamacwecwe amatye angamawaka alishumi. Elinye lamaxwebhu kufumaneke ukuba lirekhodi le- isivumelwano phakathi kukaRamses II kunye nokumkani wamaHeti. Ezinye iipilisi zabonisa ukuba iBoghaz-koy yayilikomkhulu lobukumkani bamaHeti. Igama laso loqobo yayingu Hattusha kwaye isixeko sasigubungela ummandla weehektare ezingama-300.

Ubukhosi bamaHeti benza izivumelwano nempucuko eyoyisileyo. Ishumi elinambini lala manyathelo sele liguqulelwe kwaye zibonelela nge- Ukuqondwa ngcono kweTestamente eNdala. Ukufunyanwa kobukhosi bamaHeti eBoghaz-koy kuyiphucule kakhulu imeko yethu Ukuqonda kwexesha losolusapho. 

ISodom neGomorra: Ukwazi njani ukuba ibhayibhile inokuthenjwa

Ibali leSodom neGomora lithathwa njengebali. Abagxeki bacinga ukuba yenzelwe ukunxibelelana ngemigaqo yokuziphatha. Nangona kunjalo, kuyo yonke iBhayibhile, eli bali liphathwa njengesiganeko sembali. Abaprofeti beTestamente eNdala babhekisa kwi ukutshatyalaliswa kweSodom ngokuphindaphindiweyo (Dut 29: 23; Is 13: 19; Jer 49: 18), kwaye ezi zixeko zidlala indima ebalulekileyo kwiimfundiso zikaYesu nabaPostile (Mateyu 10: 15; 2 Pet 2: 6 kunye noYuda 7). Yintoni efunyaniswe kukumbiwa kwezinto zakudala ukufumanisa ubukho bezi zixeko?

Los abembi bezinto zakudala baphande ummandla woLwandle Olufileyo iminyaka emininzi ukukhangela iSodom neGomora. IGenesis 14: 3 inika indawo kwiNtlambo yaseSidim, eyaziwa njengoLwandle lweTyuwa, elinye igama loLwandle Olufileyo. Ngomnyaka we-1924, umembi wezinto zakudala odumileyo uGqirha William Albright wemba le ndawo ekhangela iSodom neGomora. Wafumanisa ukuba yayisisixeko esixineneyo. Nangona esi sixeko ebesinxulumene ne "Izixeko eziThafeni" zebhayibhile, abanakufumana bungqina buqinisekileyo bokuxhasa le ngcinga.

Ukombiwa okungakumbi kwenziwa ngo-1965, 1967, nango-1973 I-intshi engama-23 intshi eludongeni olujikeleze isixeko, kunye nezindlu ezininzi kunye netempile enkulu. Ngaphandle kwesixeko zazinkulu amangcwaba apho kwafunyanwa amawaka emathambo. Oku kutyhile ukuba isixeko sasinabantu abaninzi ngexesha leBronze Age, malunga nexesha awayephila ngalo uAbraham. Eyona nto ibangela umdla ngakumbi bubungqina bokuba umlilo omkhulu usitshabalalisile isixeko. Ibingcwatyelwe phantsi komaleko wothuthu iinyawo ezininzi. Amangcwaba amade kwimida yedolophu iintsalela ezitshisiweyo zeethayile, iintsika kunye nezitena ezenziwe bomvu ngumlilo.

En KwiGenesis 14 Izixeko ezihlanu zikhankanyiwe ethafeni: ISodom, neGomora, neAdama, neTsohare, neTsebhoyim. Imizila yezi zixeko zine zifunyenwe kuLwandle oluFileyo. Ukulandela indlela esemazantsi ukusuka Bab edh-Drha, kukho isixeko esibizwa ngokuba Amanani. Ukuqhubeka emazantsi sisixeko esibizwa es-Safi. Emazantsi kwizixeko zakudala zeFeifa neKazazir. Izifundo kwezi zixeko zatyhila oko bebeshiyiwe kwangeloxesha, malunga ne-2450-2350 BC. C. Abembi bezinto zakudala abaninzi bakholelwa ukuba Bab edh-Drha yiSodom, INumeria yiGomora kwaye i-es-Safi yiZoar.

Into ebangela umdla kubembi bezinto zakudala kukuba ezi zixeko zazikho egqunywe ngothuthu olufanayo njengo-Bab edh-Drha. I-Numeria, ekholelwa ukuba yiGomora, yayinayo iimitha ezimbini zothuthu kwezinye iindawo. Kwisixeko ngasinye esatshatyalaliswayo, uthuthu lwalahleko lwenza umhlaba ukuba ube ngamalahle esiponji, okwenza ukuba ukwakhiwa kwakhona kungenzeki. NgokweBhayibhile, zine izixeko ezihlanu zatshatyalaliswa, eyavumela uLote ukuba abalekele eTsohare. I-Zoar ayizange itshatyalaliswe ngomlilo, kodwa yashiywa ngeli xesha.

Iipilisi zikaNuzi

IGenesis 16 isixelela loo nto USarayi, umfazi ka-Abraham, wayengafumani bantwana. Wavuma ukuba u-Abraham angamfumana umfazi wesibini wokuba nomntwana: isicaka sakhe esingum Yiphutha Agar. Esi senzo singqinwa yimibhalo emininzi eyafunyanwa ngabembi bezinto zakudala. Isicatshulwa seAlalakh kunye neKhowudi yeHammurabi bayavuma ukuba ukufumana umntwana ngale ndlela yayisisithethe esamkelekileyo. Inkqubo ye- iipilisi ze-nuzi liqela leetekisi ezichaphazeleka ngokukodwa kwesi siqendu. Zibuyela kwisiqingatha sesibini senkulungwane XV BC, zafunyanwa kwindawo yamandulo kwi-Iraq yanamhlanje. Ezi zibhalo ziyayichaza loo nto umfazi oludlolo wayenokunika indoda yakhe ikhoboka lokuba nomntwana. Inyani eqinisekisa ngokugqibeleleyo ibali leBhayibhile.

Ipuwer Papyrus: Ukwazi njani ukuba ibhayibhile inokuthenjwa

El Ipuwer ipapyrus Yimpapiri yamandulo yaseYiputa. Okwangoku yenzeka eRijksmuseum van Oudheden eLeyden, eNetherlands. Umbhalo wesandla ususela malunga 1300 BC C. njengokukhutshelwa okubhaliweyo okubhaliweyo kwangaphambili kwenkulungwane ye-XNUMX neye-XNUMX BC. C. Imele Izidubedube zase-Egypt, indlala, imbalela, ukubaleka kwamakhoboka ngobutyebi bamaYiputa nokufa kuwo wonke umhlaba wabo. Ukusuka kwinkcazo, ibalisa ngokwembono yase-Egypt yabo babona izibetho ezifana nezo zeEksodus.

UErasto, umphathi weKorinte

U-Erastus ukhankanywe kathathu eBhayibhileni, kwiZenzo 16:21, kuTimoti 4.20, nakumaRoma 16:23. Kwinqaku lamaRoma, linxulumene Erastus, igqwetha lesixeko. UPawulos wayekwisixeko saseKorinte xa wayebhalela abaseRoma. Ngo-1929, phakathi kwamabhodlo akroliweyo eKorinte yamandulo, a umbhalo kwibloko yemabhile esetyenziselwa ukwenza iplaza, eyayinombhalo okroliweyo wesiLatin ochaza oko U-Erasto wayephethe imisebenzi yoluntu.

Ke, enkosi izinto ezininzi zezinto zakudala, uninzi lwezixeko zamandulo ezichazwe kwincwadi yeZenzo zichongiwe. Ngenxa yezi zinto zifunyanisiweyo, ngoku kunokwenzeka ukuchonga ngokuchanekileyo indlela ethathwe nguPaulo kuhambo lwakhe.

Umthombo waseBethesda: Ukwazi njani ukuba ibhayibhile inokuthenjwa

Enye indawo engenarekhodi ngaphandle kweTestamente eNtsha ngoku inokufumaneka ngokuqinisekileyo, kumantla mpuma esixeko sakudala. U-Yohane 5: 1-15 uchaza a kakuhle eJerusalem, kufutshane neSango Lezimvu, ebizwa IBhetesda, singqongwe ziivaranda ezintlanu ezinophahla.

Kude kube yinkulungwane ye-XNUMX, kwakungekho bungqina ngaphandle kweVangeli kaYohane ngobukho bayo kwaye inkcazo engaqhelekanga kaJohn ibangele ukuba abaphengululi beBhayibhile bakuthandabuze ukuthembeka kwale ngxelo, kodwa iqula lafunyanwa ngokufanelekileyo kwii-1930s, kunye neentsika ezine ezijikeleze imiphetho yazo kunye nenye embindini wayo.

Ingcwaba lompostile uPhilip

Kukhuphelo losasazo, i Umbutho weArchaeological Bible Society kaJulayi 29, 2011 ibhengeze ukuba, ngexesha lokumbiwa kwecawa yexesha lase Byzantine mandulo Isixeko saseGrisi iHierapolis (kumazantsi-ntshona eTurkey), uNjingalwazi Francesco D'Andria kunye neqela lakhe lezinto zakudala bafumanisa ingcwaba likaSan Felipe, omnye wabapostile abalishumi elinesibini.

UYohane umBhaptizi, umprofeti

Icatshulwe yiTestamente eNtsha njenge umprofethi oza kuvakalisa ukuza kukaYesuUJohn uMbhaptizi ukwacatshulwe ngumbhali-mbali wenkulungwane yokuqala ongumJuda uFlavius ​​Josephus njengendoda elilungisa, eyabhaptiza phesheya kweYordan kwaye yabulawa ngokuyalelwa nguHerode, kanye njengokuba ichazwa yiBhayibhile.

Ngo-2010, i umembi wezinto zakudala uKazimir Popkonstantinov, ibango ukuba inayo lafumana ibhokisi kaJohn uMbhaptizi, kunye nemibhalo yamandulo yesiGrike ekhankanya igama lakhe.

El UGqr Lachezar SavovEsebenzisa izikena zale mihla, wafunda ibhokisi yaza yafumanisa ukuba la mathambo ngawomntu ophakathi kweminyaka engama-30 nengama-40 ubudala nophila ngokutya imifuno kuphela. Abaphengululi bayavuma ukuba ubungqina obuqokelelweyo ibonisa ukuba kunokwenzeka kakhulu ukuba ibhokisi yeyakwaYohane uMbhaptizi. Singatsho ke ukuba ibhayibhile ithembekile?

USimon waseKirene

Xa uYesu wayesiya kubethelelwa emnqamlezweni, amajoni amaRoma anyanzela indoda egama linguSimon waseKirene thwala umnqamlezo wakho (UMateyu 27:32; uLuka 23:26). USimon wayenoonyana ababizwa ngegama UAlexander noRufus (UMarko 15:21; KwabaseRoma 16:13).

Ngo-1941, i Umembi wezinto zakudala wakwa-Israeli u-Eleazar Sukenik wafumanisa ingcwaba lasentshonalanga yeYerusalem kunye neebumbi ze-XNUMX zenkulungwane ezinamagama ahlukeneyo. Amanye amagama ayeqheleke kakhulu kwi ICyrenaica. Imibhalo kwenye yezi bhokisi ifundwe: «UAlexander (unyana kaSimon)«. Kwisiciko sebhokisi yale bhokisi kukho umbhalo obhalwe igama lika-Alexander ngesiGrike kunye neQRNYT ngesiHebhere. Intsingiselo yoku ayicacanga, kodwa inye intsingiselo kukuba "yiCyrenian".

Igraffiti ebhalwe nguAlexamen

Yiyo Umzobo ohlekisayo del inkolo yamaKrestu yokuqala, ifunyenwe kufutshane ne Isekisi Maximus eRoma, yomhla ejikeleze AD 200 Umzobo umele UAlexamenos, umRoma, mhlawumbi ijoni, ekhonza indoda ebethelelwe emnqamlezweni enentloko yesilwanyana njengothixo. Kwigrafiti kubhaliwe kwathiwa: "ALE XAMENOS SEBETE THEON", Oko kukuthi "UAlexamenos uthanda uThixo wakhe".

Ngokutsho kwababhali-mbali, intloko yesilwanyana ivela ekugxekweni kwamaRoma ngamaYuda, kwaye ekubeni ubuKristu bokuqala babonwa njengesebe lamaYuda, ngoko ke umbutho. UGraffiti, nangona enyelisa, yenye yeendlela Amabali amadala abonakalayo kuYesu ebethelelwe emnqamlezweni. Ukubonisa ukungakwazi kwamaRoma ukuqonda ukukhonzwa kwendoda ethathwa njengoThixo obulewe ngaloo ndlela.

Le graffiti inomdla kuba yomeleza ezinye izinto, uYesu wabethelelwa emnqamlezweni, wayenqulwa njengoThixo kwaye kwakusele kukho ubukho obuqinileyo bobuKristu eRoma Kwasebuncinaneni. Ukanti obunye ubungqina bokuba ibhayibhile inokuthenjwa. Baninzi kakhulu, akunjalo?

Icawa yamaKristu eMegido, c. AD ka-220

Esi sixeko sezorhwebo siqulathe iintsalela zegumbi lokuthandazela lamaKristu ezaziqala ngenkulungwane yesithathu. Inemibhalo emithathu ebonakalisa ukusetyenziswa kwayo kobuKristu. Umbhalo wesiGrike, obhekisa kwitafile embindini wegumbi, ekusenokwenzeka ukuba wawusetyenziselwa umthendeleko, ufundeka ngoluhlobo "Akeptous, othanda uThixo, wanikela itafile kuThixo uYesu Krestu." Iintlanzi ezihombisa iziko lenye yezinto ezine ze-mosaic kwigumbi luphawu lobuKristu: igama ichthys (intlanzi ngesiGrike): yi-anagram yamagama athi Iesous Christos Theou Yios Soter: uYesu Krestu, uNyana kaThixo, uMsindisi .

Ngombulelo kwinzululwazi yokumbiwa kwezinto zakudala, abalinganiswa beTestamente eNtsha abachongiwe, kwabadumileyo Abalawuli baseRoma njengo-Octavian Augustus, uTibheriyo, uClaudius noNero, ukuya kumalungu ohlukeneyo osapho lwe Ukumkani uHerode, Njengomfazi wakhe nabantwana, nkqu neerhuluneli zamaphondo ziyathanda UPontiyo Pilato noFesto, nkqu nabezopolitiko abazimeleyo bathanda UAreta noJudas Galileo.

Zininzi izinto zakudala ezifunyanisiweyo ezinokukhankanywa ezingqina ubukho bezinto ezahlukeneyo zenkcubeko, izixeko, abalinganiswa, amasiko, njl. Kodwa sele singafumana umbono olungileyo wokuba zombini indala kunye nomnqophiso omtsha yingxelo yembali exhomekeke kubungqina obukhulu obuthandayo.

La inzululwazi ngezinto zakudala intle kakhulu Umanyano esivumela ukuba sazi ukuba ibhayibhile inokuthenjwa na, kangangeenkulungwane iBhayibhile ibisoloko izanywa kwaye ichaswa, kodwa sihlandlo ngasinye kufunyanwa into entsha, ibinika ubungqina bokuba yayithetha inyani kwaye akukho sizathu soku. ukuthandabuza okubaxiweyo.

Siyathemba ukuba eli nqaku liyakunceda uphendule umbuzo malunga indlela yokwazi ukuba ibhayibhile ithembekile. Ukuba ngoku uyafuna yazi ukuba uThixo unawe, qhubeka ukhangela i-Discover.online.