Las imisebenzi esisiseko zemathematics zivumela ukudala inkxaso kulwazi lokuphuhlisa ezinye iinkalo zesayensi. Ezona zinto ziphambili kwimathematika kuwo nawuphi na umsebenzi wabantu ziyaqwalaselwa, kungoko ukubaluleka kwazo; namhlanje siza kubona yonke into enxulumene nabo.

imisebenzi esisiseko

Imisebenzi esisiseko

Imisebenzi esisiseko kwimathematics ithathwa njengezona zinto ziphambili ekuphuhlisweni kwazo zonke iinkqubo zezibalo nezeenombolo. Inkqubo ye- ulawulo oluphezulu lwemisebenzi esisiseko baqala ngokudibanisa okanye ukwahlula, ukuthabatha okanye ukuthabatha, ukuphinda-phinda nokwahlula; Phakathi kwezine, ikwahlula uluhlu lwemisebenzi exhasa eminye imisebenzi.

Ngenxa yoko imisebenzi esisiseko yokusebenza zivelisa ezinye iinkqubo zamanani ezinika ubomi kuthotho lweefomula ze-arithmetic ezisebenza ukwenza imisebenzi ethile yomzimba kunye neekhemikhali. Ke ngoko, zithathwa njengesiseko sophuhliso lwezinye iindlela zenzululwazi kunye neendlela; kodwa sibona nganye nganye ngokweenkcukacha.

Umvelaphi

Imisebenzi esisiseko iqala xa umntu esongeza izinto ebomini bakhe, kodwa naxa eqhubeka nokuphelisa, ukwanda kwamanani okanye ukubola kwamanani. Ngenxa yoko, bezisoloko zinxulunyaniswa neenkqubo zendaleko Ubuntu amaGrike ayebasebenzisa kwasekuqaleni ukwenza imisebenzi ethile; AmaJiphutha adibanisa, athabatha, andisa, azahlula-hlula amanani, esebenzisa iimpawu kwiimpawu.

EBhabheli bazisebenzisa ekusebenzeni kwezikwere zamanani endalo, ngelixa amaTshayina aqala ukumilisela ngamanani a-negative. Injalo nenkcubeko yamaHindu; Ngexesha lokuvuselelwa, imisebenzi yorhwebo yayiqhutywa apho yayifuneka ukongeza okuninzi kwaye kuxa i-SND (inkqubo yokubala amanani) yazalwa apho imisebenzi kuyo yonke ialgorithmic yandiswa.

Ngokuvela kweenkqubo, isenzo ngasinye semathematika sasiyinxalenye yenkqubo yentlalo kwixesha ngalinye; Oku kuvelise ukukhula kwiinkqubo apho uphuhliso lwesayensi lusebenzisa iifom ezahlukeneyo ezinje imisebenzi esisiseko kunye ne-monomialsUkuphuhlisa iinkqubo zokunikwa kwengxelo kunye nokwenza izibalo ezinkulu, ngale ndlela amaxabiso amiselwe ukukhula kwezorhwebo, amashishini, isayensi kunye netekhnoloji.

Ukudibanisa okanye ukudibanisa

Umsebenzi wokubumba oqukethe ukudibanisa kunye nokudibanisa amanani aphezulu okanye asezantsi kumzobo, ukuze ukwandise. Inkqubo iqulathe ukudibanisa enye okanye ezingaphezulu izinto, amanani okanye izinto ukuze ufumane umxholo okanye ixabiso elinye; ukongezwa kuvumela indibaniselwano eyahlukeneyo enokuphinda-phinda ukuze kufezekiswe ulandelelwano oluthile.

Ngokukwanjalo, isetyenziswa ngokunxulumene neeseti zendalo, ukuqonda kunye neenombolo zokwenyani. Ke, basebenza njengenkxaso kwimisebenzi yolwakhiwo enxulunyaniswa nezithuba zevektha, izinto zemisebenzi okanye ukongezwa kwematriki; Ukudibanisa okanye ukudibanisa isebenzisa uphawu "+" ukubonisa ukuba inani elilandelayo kufuneka longezwe kwelona liphambili.

Isimboli yokudibanisa (+) ayisetyenziswanga kuphela njengesiseko esibonakalayo kunye nesalathiso sokongeza ixabiso kwelinye. Ikwaxhaswa ngezinye iindlela zethiyori ukubonisa ukusebenza okunika ubume beqela xa lilonke; Ngamanye amaxesha ligama lokomfuziselo ukubonisa amaxabiso kumanani, imisebenzi kunye neevektri.

Ukuthabatha okanye ukuthabatha

Iqwalaselwa kwimathematics njengenxalenye echaseneyo nokudibanisa, luhlobo lomsebenzi we-arithmetic omelwe luphawu (-); kwaye inxulumene nokusebenza kokupheliswa kwezinto, izinto, amanani kunye namaxabiso. Yindlela esinciphisa ngayo kwaye sithathe ixabiso. Umzekelo, ukuba sineeorenji ezili-9 kwaye sisusa ezi-5, siza kuba neeorenji ezi-4,

Ukuthabatha kubonisa indibaniselwano yamanani aphathekayo apho iintlobo ezahlukeneyo zezinto zidityaniswa ngokweempawu zazo; phakathi kwabo sinamanani amabi, amaqhezu amaqhezu, iidesimali, engenangqondo, iivenkile, imisebenzi kunye nayiphi na inkqubo yemathematika efuna ukuthabatha okanye ukuphelisa into ethile.

Ezinye iintshukumo zezibalo okanye iipropathi azinakuphuhliswa ngokuthabatha. Kuthathelwa ingqalelo ukungahambelani, kuba kutshintsho lomyalelo ikamva livumela ukutshintsha iziphumo; Ayidibanisi nokuba yeyiphi, kuba xa amanani amabini okanye nangaphezulu ethatyathiweyo, nokuba ulandelelwano lwenziwa njani na lomsebenzi wokukhupha, aluchaphazeli siphumo.

Ukuthabatha kuthobela amanyathelo ngokudibanisa nokuphindaphinda, kuguqula iziphumo ngokophawu kunye nendlela ebekwe phambi kwenani. Umgaqo ngamnye wemathematika uthambekele ekubeni wenze utshintsho oluncinci xa usenza imisebenzi yokuthabatha; Ngayiphi na imeko, imisebenzi ilula kwaye kulula ukuba yenziwe ngabafundi ekuqaleni kwenkqubo yabo yemfundo.

Ukuphindaphinda okanye imveliso

Ukuphindaphinda kubandakanya ukusebenza kwe-arithmetic apho inani lokuqala longezwa khona ngokuxhomekeke kwinto eboniswa ngumzobo wesibini. Kwimeko yamanani endalo, ngalinye lidityaniswa ngokwemeko ebekwe yile ilandelayo; Imelwe luphawu (x), nakwezinye izixhobo zeteknoloji okanye izixhobo ngophawu (*).

Ngenxa yoko, yinto elula yokwenza imisebenzi yokongeza okanye yokongeza, kunciphisa imisebenzi ekufuneka yenziwe; Umzekelo, ukuba ufuna ukongeza inani eli-10, sibona umzekelo:

Sithatha naliphi inani kodwa kufuneka silandise okanye siliphindaphinde kali-10. Ukudibanisa okunzulu, yenza inkqubo yokongeza amaxesha ali-10, ukuqala ngo-4 + 4 + 4 + 4 + 4 + 4 + 4 + 4 + 4 + 4 + 4 = 40; Ukuphindaphinda kuya kwenziwa kuphela ngale ndlela ilandelayo: 4 x 10 = 40; Njengoko sinokubona, ixesha elininzi ligcinwa kwaye ngaphezulu kwayo yonke le nkqubo ayide ide. Ukuphindaphinda kusebenza ekuphumezeni ezinye iinkqubo ezinje ngokuxhotyiswa, ukusebenza kweengcambu zesikwere; imisebenzi yealgebra; ii-logarithms, ezivela kwezinye, phakathi kwabanye.

ICandelo

Kukusebenza okungafaniyo kwesahlulo. Inenkqubo yokubola efuna ukwazi ukuba linokuphindaphindwa linani elinye inani. Kukusebenza okufuna ukwenziwa okuthile; Ichazwe njengeqhekeza apho isahlulo kunye nesihluli sithathwa njengezinto ezimbini.

Kwimisebenzi emininzi ye-algebraic kunye ne-arithmetic kusetyenziswa amanqaku amabini asetyenziselwa umgca othe tyaba owanqamlezayo, kwamanye ngamanqaku amabini kuphela (:), kweminye imisebenzi enesemicolon (;); kwaye kumaxesha akutshanje iyaziwa ngophawu (/); Iziphumo zokusebenza okubizwa ngokuba yi-quotient kwaye zisetyenziswa kwimisebenzi eyahlukeneyo yezibalo kunye neyemathematika.

Ncedisa olu lwazi ngokundwendwela ibhlog elandelayo, enomxholo onxulumene nesi sihloko Iinombolo zendalo: zithini? iimpawu, kunye nokunye