USocrates wayeyenye yezona filosofi zibalulekileyo zamaGrike ezaziphila kwiminyaka engama-470 kunye ne-399 BC, kwisixeko saseAthene, kukholelwa ukuba wayengoyena mkhulu kunabo bonke ixesha kwifilosofi yendalo yonke, funda ngakumbi ngalo mlinganiswa ngokufunda lo mlinganiswa unomdla. inqaku.

Wayengubani uSocrates?

Ukutyhubela iminyaka kuye kwaboniswa ukuba uSocrates sesinye sezona zithandi zobulumko zoluntu, impembelelo yakhe iye yafikelela kwiNtshona iphela ngendlela ephawulekayo, kwade kwaba yile nkulungwane, esi sithandi sobulumko sibalulekileyo sagqama ngendlela eyaphuhlisa ngayo ingcamango yentanda-bulumko yendalo iphela. ingcinga yomntu, edala impembelelo enkulu nasemva kokufa kwakhe.

Ngaphandle kokushiya nawuphi na umsebenzi obhaliweyo, uSocrates wagcina, ngokutsho kwabalandeli bakhe, umgca wengcamango ebaluleke kakhulu, uthathwa njengoyise wengcinga yamandulo, ngexesha lobomi bakhe wayenabafundi abaninzi kunye nokubaluleka kobukho bakhe eGrisi yahlula imbali. .kulwazi olukwiinxalenye ezimbini, ixesha langaphambi koLawulo lukaSocrates kunye nelasemva koSocrates. ukufa kaSocrates.

Los ngcamango zikaSocrates zazisekelwe kwiingcamango zangaphakathi zomntu, imigaqo yokuziphatha kunye nesizathu sobukho bomntu, kangangokuba kamva UPlato (Esinye isithandi sobulumko samaGrike) noAristotle baphenjelelwa kakhulu ziingcamango zikaSocrates, abafundi kunye nabahlobo beGreat Thinker.

USocrates akazange athathe inxaxheba kwezopolitiko, wayezijonga njengommi ongumzekelo, nangona kunjalo wayebandakanyeka emkhosini ngexesha lamadabi aseSamos, ePotidaea, eDelio naseAmphipolis. Wayengumfundisi-ntsapho wase-Alcibiades, owayelijoni elibaluleke kakhulu kunye nezopolitiko zaseGrisi yamandulo, wade wasindisa ubomi bakhe, kamva wayeza kubuyisela ububele ngendlela efanayo.

Wayephila ubomi obunzima, ngaphandle kweengxaki zezoqoqosho, ezamvumela ukuba achithe iiyure kunye neeyure ecamngca kwaye ecinga ngesizathu somntu kunye nesizathu sakhe sokubakho, wayezijonga njengesilumko esihambelana kakhulu nombono wokuqonda ulwazi. nokulunga kweengcinga.

Wenza imijikelo eyahlukahlukeneyo ejikeleze isixeko ukuze athethe ngokunzulu nabathengisi abancinci kunye nabantu abahlukeneyo abavela kwindalo, umbono wakhe yayikukukwazi indlela yokucinga phakathi kwe-vulgar kunye ne-aristocracy, kunye nemibutho yamandla, ukuze ufunde. ngeemeko zabantu abathi yiLa Maiéutica.

Waseka ubudlelwane obunomdla kakhulu kunye nabafundi bakhe kunye nabahlobo bakhe, wayenamandla okuguqula ulwimi kunye nendlela yokuthetha, nto leyo kuphela ababeyazi, beza ukubiza ulwimi lweSocrates, lubandakanya uhlobo lwencoko esekelwe kuthotho lwe izikhokelo ezichanekileyo, eziya kubavumela ukuba baqonde iingcamango zabo ngendlela eyahlukileyo.

Ubunzulu bukaSocrates bufikelela kumanqanaba apho nabafundi abathile babeziqonda kancinane iingcamango zakhe, wayijika indlela yokucinga eGrisi; Iifilosofi zinomdla kwiziphakamiso zakhe, wasungula ixesha elibizwa ngokuba yi-anthropological period, apho waphakamisa ukuziphatha kwengqondo njengesixhobo solwazi.

Yonke le thiyori yatolikwa ngumfundi wakhe uPlato owathi kamva wanika imilo kunye nesakhiwo kuyo yonke ingcamango kaSocrates, kwabaninzi, le filosofi ibalulekileyo yatshintsha indlela yokuziphatha yoluntu kwi-Athena.

Uqeqesho lwakhe loncwadi lwamkhokelela ekubeni azi yonke into enxulumene nomculo kunye ne-gymnastics, bamvumela ukuba aqonde isizathu sokuqiqa komntu, ulwazi njengesixhobo sokuphuma ekungazini kunye nokudala umsinga weengcamango ezichaphazela kakhulu kwiinkulungwane ezizayo. 

Historia

USocrates wazalwa ngo-470 BC kwidolophu yaseAlopece, idolophu encinci eAthene. Ukususela emncinci kakhulu wabonisa ubukhali kumagama kunye nendlela yokucinga; wafumana imfundo eqhelekileyo, ekubeni intsapho yakhe yayingeyonxalenye yodidi oluphezulu, watshata waza waba nabantwana abathathu.

Isoldado

Wayeyinkwenkwe ethatha inxaxheba kwiimfazwe zePeloponnesian ngokumelene neSparta, emva koko kwiimfazwe ezininzi, apho wade wasindisa ubomi be-Alcibiades ethile eyayiyinjengele ebaluleke kakhulu yaseGrisi, owathi kamva wabhala izinto ezimangalisayo zikaSocrates.

Ubomi bakhe basemkhosini babunomdla, ukusuka apho wafikelela kwizigqibo ezininzi malunga nokuziphatha kunye neengcinga zabantu ngexesha leenkqubo ezinzima, nangona wayemncinci kakhulu, wayengumlo omkhulu, naye wayethatha inxaxheba kwiimfazwe ezahlukeneyo ezilwa neSparta.

Njengomntu

Wayenentsapho awayenikela kuyo yonke into awayenayo, nangona kunjalo abanye bathi wayenamandla kakhulu kubantwana bakhe; umfazi wakhe ndinayo umlinganiswa owahlukileyo, wayehlala ephikisana kwaye egxeka isimo sakhe sengqondo kuyo yonke into ejikelezileyo, nangona kunjalo, kwiinkcazo zobuqu zikaPlato zikaSocrates, ubonisa ukuba ifilosofi yada yaba nobudlelwane bothando nabanye abafazi ababini.

Wayethanda ukusebenzisana nazo zonke iindidi zentlalo yoluntu yesixeko, injongo yakhe yayikukukwazi iindlela zokucinga kwiimeko ezahlukeneyo, ezidityaniswe nolwazi lwakhe, ngendlela awayenokuthi afikelele ngayo kwisigqibo sokuseka ingcamango esekelwe kwingcamango. isizathu somntu. (Bona inqaku IThales yaseMileto).

Uphuhliso lwengcinga

Kwiminyaka yakhe yokukhula waqala ukuseka imisinga yakhe yokucinga, ngelixa ephuhlisa izifundo ngendlela eqinileyo efana noncwadi, ifilosofi kunye nobugcisa. Akazange abhale nayiphi na incwadi kwaye zonke iimbekiselo ezibhekiselele kuye zisekelwe kubafundi bakhe nabahlobo bakhe abathi kamva bachaza kwiincwadi ezininzi, yonke into enxulumene nobomi kunye nokucinga kukaSocrates.

Abafundi bakhe abasondeleyo nguPlato noXenophon, babekwazi ukuthatha ireferensi ngokuthe ngqo kuyo yonke ingcamango kunye nobomi besi sithandi sobulumko; abanye ababhali-mbali bacinga ukuba kukho nokubaxa okuthile kwindlela yokuvakalisa izimvo zabo ngakwicala labahlobo bakhe.

Wayengumfundisi weenkcuba-buchopho zamaGrike ezingenakubalwa, ezathi phakathi kweminyaka engama-350 ukuya kwengama-340, zeza kwisixeko saseAthene ukuza kufunda ngeengcamango zakhe, nangona kunjalo oku kubaluleka kwamenza waphelelwa yintembelo kuninzi lwabaninzi, ekubeni ukugxekwa kukarhulumente nendlela isiGrike eyayisetyenziswa ngayo. unqulo lwalukhula, lwalunamandla kakhulu yaye lungqale.

Iminyaka yokugqibela yobomi

Ngomnyaka wama-399 watyholwa ngumthetho ngokujongela phantsi izithixo, wada wazama nokumgweba ngenxa yokukhuthaza ukukholelwa kwezinye izithixo, nto leyo eyayikhuthaza ukonakala kwezithixo kwabaninzi. livuselele ebutsheni, kwaye ubonise ukudelela imigaqo yedemokhrasi.

Wayebhidekile kwaye ebandakanyeka ngokuthe ngqo kunye neesophists, (iingcinga eziphendulayo zeGrisi yamandulo), wachitha iintsuku zakhe zokugqibela kufuphi nabahlobo bakhe abakhulu, kuquka uPlato, emva kokufa kwakhe waphefumlela ukusekwa kwezikolo zeSocrates kunye nePlato.

I-Biography

Esi sobulumko esikhulu satshintsha indlela yokucinga phakathi kweGrisi yamandulo kunye neGrisi ye-post-Socratism, imigaqo kunye neengcamango zale ngcinga zatshintsha ubomi bakhe, nangona kunjalo, uSocrates wayengumntu ozolileyo nolula, umntu oqhelekileyo, ngokutsho kwe-Biographical references of some. kubafundi bakhe

Ukuzalwa

Ukuzalwa kwakhe kwenzeka kwisixeko saseAlopece, eAthene, eyayiyiGrisi yamandulo, ngonyaka wama-470 BC. C. abanye bathi wazalwa ngenene ngo-469 BC, uyise wayengumkroli nomvuseleli wemisebenzi, unina uFainarate, wayengumbelekisi nje.

Akukho zireferensi ezininzi malunga nobomi bakhe njengomntwana kunye nomfana oselula, nangona kunjalo abanye ababhali-mbali bathi kwiminyaka yakhe yokuqala wafundiswa kuncwadi, umculo kunye negymnastics, ukuba kamva athathe amanyathelo akhe okuqala kwi-dialectic yencoko kunye neengxoxo. iisophists ezingenakubalwa.

Izifundo

Olu hlobo lokufunda lwaluxabisa kakhulu ukuphumeza ukuphunyezwa kweengcamango zakhe zefilosofi, ngexesha lobutsha kunye nokukhula kwakhe wafunda urhwebo lukayise, wakhonza njengehoplite (Ijoni laseGrisi yamandulo), ekhonza kwimikhosi yasemkhosini apho kwakusiliwa khona. amadabi amaninzi.

Ootitshala bakhe abakhulu yayinguDamon, uAnaxagoras noArkelaus, awafunda kubo yonke into enxulumene nefilosofi yesizathu sakhe, ngenxa yokuba wayenxibelelene ngokusondeleyo, ekubeni wayemthanda kakhulu, kunye neengcamango eziphembelelayo ezinxulumene ne-rhetoric kunye ne-rhetoric. i-dialectic,

ubomi basemkhosini

Wayekho kwiMfazwe yasePeloponnesian ngokuchasene neSparta. Wasebenza nakwiimfazwe ezaziphakathi kowama-440 nowama-422 BC, ebudeni bolunye lwezo mpikiswano, uSocrates wasindisa ubomi buka-Alcibiades, owathi, njengoko besesitshilo ngaphambili, wayeyinjengele eyayinempembelelo kakhulu kwiGrisi yaMandulo.

Lo njengele wagxininisa kwizihlandlo ezininzi inkalipho kunye nokuchasa kukaSocrates kwidabi ngalinye, kamva uya kuba ngumfundi kaSocrates kunye nomhlobo omkhulu, kangangokuba injengele yavuza ubabalo kuSocrates ngokumkhupha edabini. Delio. Nangona wayenempembelelo kunye nobuhlobo buka-Alcibiades, uSocrates akazange abe nomdla kwezopolitiko.

Intsapho

Watshata ebudaleni kunye nenenekazi elineminyaka engamashumi amathathu elincinci kuye, elibizwa ngokuba nguXantipa, owathi kubabhali-mbali abaninzi wayenekratshi kwaye enesidima, wayiphatha ngendelelo intanda-bulumko, ngokutsho kuka-Aristotle omnye wabafundi bakhe abakhulu, uSocrates naye wayenobudlelwane naye. elinye inenekazi eligama linguMirto.

Wayenoonyana abathathu: uSophroniscus, uLamprocles kunye noMenexenus. Bahlala kunye noSocrates kwaye akukho namnye kubo owayenobomi obubalaseleyo okanye obufanelekileyo, ngokweenkcazo zika-Aristotle, nangona kunjalo ifilosofi yakwazi ukuxhasa intsapho ngenxa yezinto awayezishiyile uyise, emvumela ukuba aphile ngoxolo nangoxolo. indlela enzima.

ukuvela kwengqondo

Njengoko iminyaka yayihamba, uSocrates waqalisa ukunxulumanisa ubomi bakhe neengcinga zakhe, wasebenzisa ulwimi oluhle, apho wanikela intsingiselo kuyo yonke into awayeyazi, eyayiyinxalenye yokufunda kwakhe, emisela imigaqo efana nethi, “Umphefumlo uyinto ephilileyo. Umanyano phakathi kobukrelekrele kunye nesimilo, into egqibayo ukuba umntu uphambene okanye sisilumko, ungendawo okanye olungileyo.

Wazama ukufundisa abantu indlela yokuphuma ekungazini, esebenzisa izixhobo ezinje ngemibuzo, apho umntu ngokwakhe, xa ephendula, wayefuna ukuqonda isizathu sobukho bakhe, yaye kolo hambo lutyhutyha isixeko esazi, ebuza, ebuza ngendlela. yokucinga ngomntu, yaseka elinye lamabinzana adumileyo efilosofi yoBuntu "Ndiyazi kuphela ukuba andazi nto".

USocrates akazange abhale nayiphi na incwadi, wayecinga ukuba umntu ngamnye kufuneka aphuhlise izimvo zakhe kwaye azigcine kwezazo engqondweni, ukuze ngokukhethekileyo aphuhlise ubomi obuzimeleyo kunye nendlela yokucinga, nangona kunjalo abafundi bakhe ababini ababalaseleyo uPlato noXenophon bazitolika iingcamango ezizisa uluntu. (Bona kwanenqaku Aristotle).

umfundisi kunye nesithandi sobulumko

Ngexesha lokukhula kwakhe, uSocrates wayenaBafundi abaninzi kuquka uPlato, uAristotle phakathi kwabanye, kangangokuba yonke imfundiso yakhe yaphembelela ezi ngcinga zibalaseleyo. Imbono yakhe ngonqulo nendlela yokuhlonela izithixo zaseAthene, yenza ukuba abezobupolitika abaninzi nabantu abanempembelelo eAthene bambeke ematyaleni.

I-biographies eyahlukahlukeneyo ichaza uSocrates njengengcinga enkulu echitha ixesha elininzi lobomi bakhe ejikeleza isixeko, ethatha iimbono zabarhwebi, abantu abaqhelekileyo, abachwephesha, abaceli ababekhonza njengabangeneleli bakhe kunye nomthombo weengcamango zakhe.

Oku kuziphatha kwamvumela ukuba aseke into awayibiza ngokuba yi "Mayeutics", Ithetha ukuthini indlela apho umntu ngamnye kufuneka aqonde kwaye aqonde iingcinga kunye nezenzo zakhe, ukuze azuze inkululeko ekungazini ngengcamango yakhe, isizathu kunye nolwazi.

Phakathi kweengcamango zakhe ezibalulekileyo yindlela awafundisa ngayo iLa Mayéutica, yayiligalelo lakhe elikhulu, ngayo wakwazi ukuthabatha kubafundi bakhe indlela yokusombulula iingxaki ezahlukeneyo ezibuzwa emntwini, imibuzo enengqiqo ikhokelela ekubeni afundise iLa Mayéutica. iimpendulo ezizivumelayo ukuba zichaze indlela ubani acinga ngayo.

Kwimibandela yonqulo, uSocrates wangqina ukuba akukho namnye uThixo owaseka ingcamango enye, wayithethelela ngaphezu kwayo yonke loo nto, umntu ngamnye wayenelizwi elifihlakeleyo langaphakathi, yaye lalisebenza njengesikhokelo kuzo zonke izenzo zakhe, ukongezelela koko uthixo onempembelelo kwindlela abantu abaziphatha ngayo.

Umgwebo 

Esi sikhundla sabangela ukuba uSocrates asiwe ematyaleni. Ngomnyaka wama-399 BC wagwetyelwa ukufa, ngenxa ye "Impiety Public ngokubhekiselele kwizithixo kunye nenkohlakalo yolutsha", isigqibo ngelo xesha sasihlwaywe ngokufa, kwaye enye yeendlela ezisetyenziswayo yayikukutya i-hemlock (iPlant ethe yafunyanwa. yayisetyenziswa njengetyhefu kunye nezithambiso).

Ngokutsho komfundi wakhe uXenophon, ityala Oku kwakusenziwa ngenxa yokuba, ngokutsho kweengcinga namagqwetha aseAthene, uSocrates wavula iingcango zokugxekwa ( Dialogue ), kangangokuba iinkqubo zobupolitika zagxekwa nguye nangabantu abaninzi, besithi nguSocrates, ekhuthaza ulutsha ukuba lumisele ukugxekwa njengohlobo oluthile lokugxeka. yoqhanqalazo.

Ndavelisa iindlela ezininzi zokugxeka ngokugculela, ngokuphathelele indlela igunya elalisingathwa ngayo, yaye phakathi kwezigxeko nezigculelo kwakukho eyona ikhethekileyo yathi: “ Ukuba uyanqwenela, ndingakumema ukuba utye kwizidlo zoluntu.”, ebangela ukuba ijaji idibane kwaye ngevoti edibeneyo bamisela ityala kunye nokufa kwakhe.

Ukufa

Emva kwetyala, uSocrates wazinikela ekuthobeleni lo myalelo, nangona kunjalo abahlobo bakhe nezalamane bacebisa ukuba ahlawule ibheyile ukuze akhululwe kwaye abaleke, kodwa akazange avume, wafa ngoko ngowama-399 BC eneminyaka engama-70 ubudala.

Ngembeko yakhe, i-Modern Academy yaseAthene yabeka umfanekiso oqingqiweyo egameni lakhe kanye kumnyango weli ziko, uSocrates wayitshintsha indlela yokucinga yama-Athene, ebonisa iingcamango ezintsha ezazisenziwa ngabafundi bakhe nabalandeli bakhe emva kokufa kwakhe, beyila imbali yonqulo. Amaxesha okucinga ngexesha langaphambi koSocratic kunye neSocrates.

Izixhobo

Esi sithandi sobulumko saphula izakhiwo zokucinga zeGrisi yamandulo, satshintsha iinkqubo kwaye sasekwa ngabafundi bakhe nasemva kokufa kwakhe, ingcinga eyondla eminye imisinga yentanda-bulumko, phakathi kweempawu zayo ezibalulekileyo zezi:

  • Inguquko yengcamango yefilosofi, inika intsingiselo ngendlela ebonakalayo.
  • Guqula iintsomi zeengcinga zelo xesha, apho i-absolutism yayikhona.
  • Wayesebenzisa isigqebelo kunye nokuphikisa njengezixhobo zokuqhankqalaza ukungabikho kokusesikweni ekuhlaleni.
  • Ukuthandabuza yayiligama elicace kakhulu ukuze kumiselwe isiqalo solwazi. Wamisela ngokucacileyo ingcamango yokulungileyo nokubi, ebeka umlinganiselo ngamnye endaweni yawo.
  • Wamisela ngokucacileyo igama kunye nokubhala, njengezinto ezibalulekileyo zokufundisa nolwazi.
  • Ulwazi nobulumko yayiyeyona njongo iphambili yobudlelwane bomntu buphela nobuntu bakhe.
  • Wasebenzisa indlela kaSocrates, equka imibuzo ephathelele izisombululo ezingqalileyo ezinokumiselwa ngumntu ngamnye, ezibizwa ngokuba yiMaieutics.
  • Wachasa izilumko zaseGrisi yamandulo, ngokuphumelela inani elikhulu leentshaba ezamhlaselayo kamva, ngokusebenzisa Ubulungisa.
  • Waza neengcinga zobuthixo, ezahlukileyo kwezo zimiselweyo.
  • Xa ephunyezwa ekucamngceni ngaye, umntu uzenzela eyakhe ingqiqo ngaphandle kwemfuneko yeengcamango zangaphandle.
  • Wajika ifilosofi kwisayensi evumela ingxoxo kunye nendlela yokungavumelani ngaphandle kokudala ukungafani.
  • Akazange afundise nayiphi na imfundiso, wanceda abanye ukuba bacinge, ngengcamango yokufuna inyaniso.

  • Waseka iindlela ezintsha zokudala iingqiqo kunye neenkcazo zeemeko kunye nezinto.
  • Ingqwalasela yakhe yayisekelwe kwiingxaki zokuziphatha nezokuziphatha, esoloko ekhangela umongo wesidima.
  • Ukufa kwakhe kwabangela ukwanda kwezikolo ezininzi zentanda-bulumko, ezona zibalulekileyo zezikaPlato noAristotle.
  • Wamisa ezakhe iimfundiso, awayezenza kwindawo yokuzivocavoca enkulu ebizwa ngokuba yi “Cinosarges” (ingcwaba lezinja).
  • Ayizange iwugcine uluvo lwelizwe, usapho okanye imithetho, ngakumbi iyantlukwano yodidi. (Bona inqaku Ifilosofi yamaGrike).

Igalelo

Izixhobo zokucinga ezenziwe nguSocrates zaba nefuthe kakhulu kwimisebenzi yenzululwazi efana nengqondo, ifilosofi kunye nengqondo, nakwixesha lethu, igalelo lakhe elibalulekileyo kwezi ndawo:

iingcamango zobomi

USocrates wavumela ukusekwa kwento ebizwa ngokuba yifilosofi yokuziphatha, ebonisa iingcamango kunye nemigaqo eqwalaselwa kuphela ngokwemvelo, ukukhangela imibuzo enxulumene nesizathu sobomi kunye nesizathu sokuba umntu.

Lo mgaqo uvumele amakhaya amaninzi eGrisi ukuba aseke iindlela ezintsha zokucinga ukuze aqonde intlalontle njengento esisiseko evumela ukwahlula ukungazi, ukuseka ngendlela elula, ukwahlula okulungileyo nokubi, ubumnyama nokukhanya, ngaphandle kokuzimisela okuphakathi.

iingqiqo zentlalo

KuPlato, ifilosofi kaSocrates ivumela ukuba sijonge iingcamango zoluntu ngendlela ecacileyo, ukujonga iimeko ngokukrokra okuthile, bamvumela ukuba afumane indlela yokuqwalasela imigaqo yoluntu ngokucacileyo nangokulula.

Ubulungisa kunye namandla, ahlakazwe kwiingcamango ezibhekiselele kuluntu kwaye kungekhona kwicala elinye, ingcamango yayiyindlela yokufikelela kwiingxaki zomntu ngengqiqo kunye nenjongo.

Incoko kunye nengxabano

Ingxoxo ijolise kwaye izimisele ukuseka ngokwayo njengezona zixhobo ziphambili zokutyhila iingcamango, zithathwa njengefilosofi kwaye yenye yegalelo lakhe elikhulu, ukuba ingxoxo ivumela ulwazi olutyebisayo.

Ukuvezwa kweengcamango ezahlukeneyo kukhulisa iziphumo, ukhetho lukhula kwaye iindlela ezingcono kunye neendlela ezintsha zokulawula iinqobo malunga nombandela ziphunyeziwe, ukuphelisa indlela evaliweyo kunye neyodwa, indlela ekhoyo ngoku igcinwe kwiindlela ezahlukeneyo zefilosofi nezengqondo.

USocrates

Uphuhliso lweMaieutics

Le ndlela yobugcisa yeyona isetyenziswa kwiPsychology, eyenziwe nguSocrates kwaye yaphuhliswa kamva emva kokufa kwakhe, ibandakanya ukuphuhliswa kweengcamango ngokusebenzisa imibuzo, kwingqondo yengqondo kunye nezinye iindawo zokufunda kwengqondo, ezi ziguquguqukayo ezithintekayo zigcinwa ezivumela ukufezekisa iimpendulo ezibalulekileyo. kwindlela ethile yokuziphatha kwabantu.

I-Maieutics isetyenziswa ngokubanzi ngexesha leengxoxo, njengoko uSocrates wavumela i-interlocutor yakhe ukuba ivelise inqanaba lolwazi apho umntu ngokwakhe angakwazi ukudala imibuzo yakhe.

isigqebelo kunye ne-dialectics 

Ezi zinto, zisetyenziswe ngendlela efanelekileyo nguSocrates ngokwakhe "Ndicinga, ngoko ke ndinguye", yinxalenye yamabinzana ashwankathela indlela yokuhlalutya ulwazi lomntu, isizathu somntu esibonwa ngendlela ehlekisayo kunye nehlekisayo, vumela ukufunda ngakumbi. malunga nokuziphatha kunye neengcinga zomntu.

Ngolu buchule ngumbuzo wokubhenca amabango obuxoki kunye neengcamango kunye neenjongo ezimbi, kubantu abafuna ukukhusela iingcamango ezithile, ngenxa yabo, uSocrates ucetywayo kwiikhrayitheriya zoviwo oluhlangeneyo kunye nokuthatha inxaxheba, ukukhuthaza ukugxekwa kweemeko ezimbi.

USocrates

Iimbono malunga nobuhle

Nangona bekukho iindlela ezahlukeneyo zokulinganisa kunye nokumisela iimpawu zobuhle, uSocrates wayeneenqobo zakhe malunga nalo mbandela, wamiselwa ngendlela enzulu kakhulu yokuba ubuhle "bubuTyhosha obungenasiphelo", ngenxa yokuba bubandakanya kunye nobume bexeshana.

Wayecinga ukuba izinto ezintle zivelisa ulindelo emntwini, nto leyo ekhokelela ekubeni enze izigqibo eziphosakeleyo ngokuziphatha. Umfundi wakhe uPlato wayigcina le migaqo waza wayivelisa kwiminyaka yamva, apho imbonakaliso yobuhle yayiviwa kulo lonke elaseGrisi.

Ukuqhubekeka 

Ligama elivumela ukukhula ukutyhubela iminyaka, ukuba sisigxina kwezinto, iingcamango nolwazi, uSocrates wanikela imfundiso njengendlela yokugcina iindlela zokucinga nokuziphatha.

Waziqhelanisa ngokuthe ngqo nabafundi bakhe ababumba ngokwenene esi siphakamiso, kangangokuba iindlela zokucinga zefilosofi ezisekelwe kwiimfundiso zikaSocrates ziyaphuhliswa. (Bona inqaku Ifilosofi yoBuntu).

Imifanekiso

Ifilosofi yokuqala enkulu yoluntu, eshiywe kwizizukulwana ezininzi zeengcamango kunye neengcinga, ezithi, zishwankathelwe ngamabinzana amancinci, zibonisa ukubaluleka kwakhe ekuphuhliseni uluntu lwase-Athene kunye nokuba waba nefuthe kuluntu lwaseNtshona lwangoku, ibinzana ngalinye liqulunqwe ngumsebenzi wakhe. abafundi nabafundi ababekufutshane nalo mlinganiswa mkhulu.

"Indoda enyanisekileyo ihlala ingumntwana"

"Ndiyazi nje ukuba andazi nto"

"Ulwazi luqala ngokumangalisayo"

“Ubomi obungakhange buhlolwe abufanelanga ukuphila”

“Thetha ukuze ndikwazi.”

USocrates

"Ubuhle bubangela ulindelo kunye neenkanuko ezivelisa ingcinezelo kunye nobundlobongela."

"Ukufa kunokuba yeyona ntsikelelo inkulu."

“Akukho kumkani okanye abalawuli abaphethe intonga, kodwa abo bakwaziyo ukuyalela.

"Isihloko esisemthethweni ayisosiqinisekiso samandla, ngokutsho kukaSocrates."

"Uze ungavumeli ingca ikhule kwindlela yobuhlobo."

Lowo uhambayo makamyeke el mundo kuqala azishukumise.”

"Ukuziphatha okusekelwe kwimilinganiselo yeemvakalelo ehambelanayo yinkohliso nje."

"Ndinqwenela ukuba abantu abaqhelekileyo babe namandla angenamkhawulo wokwenza ububi, kwaye ke amandla angenamkhawulo okwenza okulungileyo."

"NguThixo kuphela osisilumko esiphezulu."

"Ukufikelela kwisigqibo esichanekileyo akusosiqinisekiso sokuba inkqubo yokuqiqa yayichanekile."

“Iimbongi aziwudali umbongo ngobulumko, koko ziwudala ngohlobo lwempefumlelo efumaneka kubaprofeti okanye kwiimboni, kuba zithetha izinto ezininzi ezintle zingazi ukuba zithetha ukuthini.

"Ukuze uzifumane, zicingele wena."

“Xa ingxoxo ilahlekile, ukunyelisa sisixhobo salowo woyisiweyo

"I-Luxury yintlupheko eyenziwe."

"Ndinqwenela ukuba ulwazi lube luhlobo lwento equkuqelayo ukusuka kwisitya esigcweleyo ukuya kwezo zihlala zingenanto."

"Eyona sosi ilungileyo yindlala."

"Isenzo ngasinye sinolonwabo kunye nexabiso laso."

USocrates

Uxolo lukaSocrates

Iquka incwadi eyabhalwa nguPlato, echaza ngentetho kaSocrates awayinikela kwiinkundla zaseAthene xa wayethethelela ityala lakhe, apho watyholwa ngokonakalisa abantu abaselula nokungakholelwa koothixo baseAthene. 

Kulo msebenzi, iingcamango zikaPlato malunga nemeko kaSocrates zichazwe ngendlela elula, kuninzi ayithembekanga, yinkcazo eyenziwa yifilosofi malunga nokukhusela uSocrates, kukholelwa ukuba yayiyeyokuqala. umsebenzi kaPlato.

Yabhalwa kwiminyaka yama-393 kunye no-389 BC apho uSocrates esithi akazi ngokwenene ukuba yintoni na imeko ethe yavela ezingqondweni zabamangaleli, kwaye ichaza iindlela zokucinga zabo kunye nokuphambukiswa kwazo, abasemagunyeni banciphisa ukuqonda kunye nokuqonda. ukuvula iindlela ezintsha zokucinga.

USocrates

Yenziwe ngamacandelo amathathu asasazwa ngolu hlobo lulandelayo:

Icandelo lokuqala

Ukuqulunqwa kweNtshayelelo apho uSocrates eseka indlela aza kuzithethelela ngayo, uhlobo lwesizathu sendlela yakhe kunye neenkcukacha zesizathu sokumangalelwa, uchaza isizathu sokuba atyhole, uchaza isizathu sokuba aqhubele phambili kwi-oracle yaseDelphi, ephikisa izityholo kunye nokuseka inyaniso yakhe njengenyaniso. into yokuqwalaselwa.

Ngokufanayo, kulo bugcisa, eyona nto ibalulekileyo kwaye ifanelekileyo, iqulethe imilinganiselo eyahlukahlukeneyo ukuba umhlobo wakhe uQuerefonte usungula ngokubhekiselele kwi-Oracle yaseDelphi, ukuba ulwahlulo kunye noMeletus. Ulwakhiwo lwenxalenye yokuqala luhamba ngolu hlobo lulandelayo:

  • Intshayelelo
  • Isityholo
  • Ingcaciso yokuba kutheni utyholwa
  • Ukutolikwa kweOracle yaseDelphi
  • Ukuphikisa izityholo
  • Ukuzitshabalalisa, apho athetha inyani.

Inxalenye yesibini

Iseka ikhrayitheriya yokwamkela umthetho njengendlela yokubonisa ukuziphatha kwabo kunye nokunika intsingiselo kwiingcamango zabo, yenza ingcamango yokuxelela abagwebi ukuba kufuneka balandele umzekelo womthetho nokuba abavumelani; Ngokubhuqa, kule nxalenye yesibini uSocrates uyakuphepha ukuchasana neengcamango zakhe, ngoko ke ukuhlonipha kwakhe umthetho.

USocrates

Ukhankanya abagwebi abathathu ababetyhola uAnito, owayengunyana kaMeletus owayenempembelelo waseAthene, owayekuphela kongenelelo ngexesha lokuchotshelwa kwetyala likaSocrates, kunye noLycon, abameli bamaciko kwaye kuncinci okwaziwayo ngokwembali ngalo mlinganiswa. , ulwakhiwo lwenxalenye yesibini luhamba ngolu hlobo lulandelayo:

  • Ukwamkelwa
  • Inkcazo yesivakalisi.

Inxalenye yesithathu

Ekupheleni kolu xolo, uSocrates uqwalasela oko kuya kwenzeka kwiindwalutho ezibamangalelayo, kuya kwenzeka ntoni kwabo bangavumiyo ukwahluka kweekhrayitheriya, bazivalele kwiingcamango zabo, uphakamisa isohlwayo sikaThixo abanokuba naso ukuba ababonisi kwaye oko kunokubangela esi sigqibo kwixesha elizayo, le nxalenye yokugqibela inesihloko esilandelayo:

  • Isiprofeto

Ifilosofi

Ikhrayitheriya esetyenziselwa ukwazi ifilosofi kaSocrates isekwe ngolu hlobo lulandelayo: Yazi ingcamango yomntu, ulwazi lwakhe ngaye kunye nendalo yakhe, kwaye uqaphele ukungazi njengento ephazamisayo ethintela ukukhula kweengcamango zomntu.

USocrates

Kwezi zakhiwo zimbini, uSocrates waphakamisa ifilosofi yakhe yonke, apho ngolwazi lokwenyaniso kunye nokuphunyezwa kwe-dialectics njengesixhobo sokufunda, bavumela ukufumana iziphumo ezilindelekileyo. Ngelo xesha iingcinga kunye neengcamango zazingqongqo kakhulu kwaye zisesikweni, kungoko ixabiso likaSocrates xa ehlaziya iingcamango zefilosofi.

ukuphuhlisa i-dialectic

Iqulethe eyona njongo iphambili yentanda-bulumko kaSocrates, ngokufunda i-cosmology, yamvumela ukuba abe nengqiqo yeengcamango ezinxulumene nendalo iphela, nangona kunjalo ukusetyenziswa kweendlela zenzululwazi kwezi zikhundla kwamkhokelela ekubeni afune iimpendulo ezithe ngqo ngakumbi mayela nendalo. undoqo womhlaba nomntu.

Ngenxa yoko, ndivelisa indlela enembile, eya kukunceda ukuba ukhokele kulwazi lokwenyani lwehlabathi kunye nobume bezinto, ukufumana ngenxa yoko, ukuba iimeko kwaye ngakumbi ubunyani bezinto, zifumaneka ngaphakathi komntu omnye.

Wandula ke asebenzise indlela kaSocrates, equka iincoko neengxubusho nabahlobo kunye naye wonke umntu omngqongileyo, ukuze afumane inkcazelo ecacileyo ngokuphathelele inyaniso nobume bezinto, kodwa ngaphezu kwako konke, ngendalo iphela.

USocrates

Ukwenza oku wayesebenzisa isigqebelo kunye nee-maieutics. Zombini ziyinxalenye yomgaqo osisiseko we-Socrates dialectic, apho ngokungazi kunye nemibuzo wazama ukunika impendulo kuzo zonke izinto.

iinkolelo ezibalulekileyo

KuSocrates kwakubalulekile ukwazi apho iingcinga zivela khona, ngubani na ozivelisayo, kwintanda-bulumko yase-Athene, inkolelo yayisekelwe koothixo okanye kumaziko awongamileyo awayefakela umntu ulwazi, kodwa kuSocrates, izinto azizange zisebenze ngolo hlobo.

Wayecinga ukuba iingcamango kunye neengcinga zalo naluphi na uhlobo zenziwe ngenxa yesizathu, umntu ofanayo wayeneziqalelo ezibangela ukuzalwa kweengcamango, imimoya yayiyimpawu ehambelana nomphefumlo apho umntu ngamnye uxhomekeke ekuwugcineni nasekuwukhuseleni, ngaphandle kwemfuneko yokuxhomekeka. kumandla angaphandle.

Ukuziphatha

Yayiyintsika kwingcamango yefilosofi kaSocrates, ngokutsho kwakhe, umntu ngamnye ucinga ukuba ulungile, umhle kwaye unobulungisa, kwaye ngokusekelwe kwezi ndlela zintathu zokucinga umntu wenza izenzo zakhe, umbuzo ngamnye usekwe ngaphakathi kweengcamango kunye nobuchule boSocrates. , imibuzo eyayibuzwa ngabantu.

USocrates

Ngandlel’ ithile, wakwazi ukwandisa ulwazi kwabanye, ababeqalisa ukuqonda isizathu sokuba iingcamango zale ngcinga ibalaseleyo, phakathi kwezinye ezininzi, zazisithi ulonwabo lufumaneka kuphela kumntu oziphethe kakuhle, ukuze umntu ozigcinayo imilinganiselo yakhe yokuziphatha ibe nguye kuphela. umntu okwaziyo ukonwaba.

Ngokufanayo, wayekholelwa ukuba ulonwabo lokwenene lufumaneka ngokuba nesimilo; oko kukuthi, ngumntu oziphethe kakuhle kuphela onokuphila ubomi obonwabisayo.

Kwezopolitiko

Nangona engazange athathe nxaxheba kwimicimbi yezopolitiko, uSocrates waseka umgaqo apho ekuphela kwabantu abanokulawula ibe ngabantu abanokuthi baphuhlise ubukrelekrele babo, wayengakukhathalelanga ukuphela kwedemokhrasi, wayegxile kulawulo kuphela, endleleni ngubani na onokuyisebenzisa.

Nangona abaninzi bekholelwa ukuba uPlato wayenempembelelo enkulu kwiingcamango zobupolitika zikaSocrates, abanye bacinga ukuba ukuba wayengene kuyo, uSocrates ngewayephile ubomi obukhohlakeleyo obuzaliswe ziintshaba, iingcamango zakhe ezintsha nezahlukileyo zazingayi kumvumela ukuba asebenzise nasiphi na isityholo kwezobupolitika. .

USocrates

Mistery

Kwintanda-bulumko kaSocrates, kukho iindlela zokucinga ezazihlonelwa kakhulu ngelo xesha, ukuvumisa nomlingo yayiyenye yazo; USocrates wayengumlandeli omkhulu wokuvumisa yaye enomhlobo omkhulu ogama linguDiotima owayesebenzisa i<em>advancio, ukweyisela abezobupolitika nabantu ababalulekileyo. eAthene.

Ngalo mfundisikazi, uSocrates uyazi iimfihlelo kunye neemfihlelo zothando, kunye nokungaziwa kunye nokuzalwa kwakhona okwakungabalulekanga kuye, kodwa wakhonza kuphela ukuqinisa yonke into enxulumene nesizathu sokucinga.

Uphando kwiinkonzo ezahlukeneyo ezingaqondakaliyo lwamvumela ukuba aqwalasele oku kulandelayo, kukho ilizwi elifihliweyo elivela ngaphaya, kwaye livela kanye xa umntu eza kwenza impazamo, kwabaninzi lo mqondiso uphakanyiswa nguSocrates yi-intuition nje yakho. ingqondo, enemvelaphi yobuthixo ngokwenene kwaye ayixhomekeke kwiingcamango zangaphandle okanye iinkolelo. (Bona inqaku Ifilosofi ).

Indlela

Indlela yokuphumeza ukukhula kolwazi kwifilosofi kaSocrates, isekwe njengoko besitshilo ngaphambili ngokusebenzisa i-dialectics, oku kuqhutywa ngeendlela ezimbini ezize de kube yimini yokufa kwakhe, wakhonza ukufumana lonke ulwazi lwakhe, iMayeutics kunye ne-Irony.

USocrates

I-Maieutics

Le ndlela ichazwe ngasentla yazuza uSocrates, ecinga ukuba negalelo elikhulu kwifilosofi yase-Athene, ngokusebenzisa imibuzo kunye nomdlalo weengcamango owawuvumela ukuba kuthathelwe ingqalelo ukuba umntu ngamnye wanikela impendulo kwimeko efanayo (Technique isasetyenziswa ngabanye beePsychologists), indlela yayisebenza kakuhle. , ngokukaSocrates ukufumana iziphumo zolwazi olulindelekileyo.

Ikwathi xa efumana iimpendulo, kwaloo mntu mnye wayekhangela isizathu kunye nolwazi oluthi, ngobudlelwane babo nabanye, babavumele ukuba baphendule kuzo zonke iimeko zabo zobomi, ngaloo ndlela bebavumela ukuba baphume ekungazini, ukuguquguquka okuchazwa nguSocrates. njengeyona nto iyingozi ekuqhubeleni phambili ingcamango yomntu.

Isigqebelo

KuSocrates, ukuqondwa kokungazi kukabani okanye kwangaphandle yinto esisiseko yokuseka uphando lwesizathu kunye nemigaqo yokuziphatha, uphawu lwakhe olukhulu njengomfundisi lwalusekelwe kwimeko enzima yokuthetha noku-ayinisa; Ngayo, abafundi bakhe bosulelwa kubo kwaye iingcamango zabo ziya kuba bubungqina, ngaloo ndlela bebonisa iingcamango ezifihlakeleyo kwaye zibhencwa ngokupheleleyo.

Umbono wazo zombini ezi ndlela kukudala into eguquguqukayo apho umfundi ekhawulezayo ukuba iimpendulo zilungile engqondweni yakhe, ukuze esebenzisa ubuchule bakhe akwazi ukuzivakalisa esebenzisa amagama akhe, nokuba zibonakala zahluke kancinane, zizalana ngokusondeleyo. kuba ifuna ukwandisa ulwazi lwakho.

Isicelo

Okwangoku, zombini iindlela zisetyenziswa kwiindlela ezahlukeneyo zenzululwazi kunye neengcali, ezifana nefilosofi, umthetho, imbali, i-psychology, phakathi kwezinye iindawo, nakwiiyunivesithi bavame ukusebenzisa indlela ye-ronic ngaphezu kwe-maieutic.

Ukufundisa kuphathwa ngendlela yesininzi, apho utitshala ingenguye kuphela olawula inyaniso nolwazi, kodwa ngemibuzo neempendulo ezithile, umfundi unokuseka iikhonsepthi kunye nemilinganiselo yakhe.

Iindlela zokuziphatha

Ingcamango kaSocrates yayineziseko eziqinileyo ezivumela ubuninzi bayo kunye nophuhliso lweminye imisinga yeengcamango, abafundi bakhe babephethe ukunika ubomi kwiingcamango kunye nokukhuthaza yonke into malunga nomfundisi wakhe, phakathi kweengcamango ezibalulekileyo ezigcinwe, kuphuhliso. yeenqobo zokuziphatha njengendlela ephambili yokufikelela kulwazi.

KuSocrates, iinqobo zokuziphatha zisekelwe kwisidima sokuba umntu ngamnye kufuneka aphuhlise iingcinga zakhe kuyo nayiphi na imeko, wayechasa ngokunyanisekileyo kwiisophists, ezazigcina iingcinga ze-orthodox kunye nezithe tye.

USocrates

USocrates wakhupha ezona ngcamango zibalaseleyo zokukhuthaza oko kubizwa ngokuba yi “Moral Virtues”, okwamvumela ukuba ade ambize ngokuba nguyise wokuziphatha, osekelwe kulwazi ngomntu, ingcinga yakhe yehlabathi lonke ngokuchasene nesophist pragmatism, ithatha isimilo njengento esisiseko. isiqalelo solwazi.

Ukuziphatha kukaSocrates kwakunezi mpawu zilandelayo:

  • Misela indlela yokuziphatha.
  • Yazi ukusebenza kwezenzo, ukuze wenze ngendlela elungileyo kufuneka ube nolwazi.
  • Ukuziphatha kusekelwe kwingqiqo, apho okulungileyo kongamela ububi.
  • Lulwazi olusebenzayo (ukwazi ukwenza ngokuchanekileyo).
  • I-Ethics ivumela ukuqhawula iingcambu zokungazi.
  • Ii-Vice ziintshaba ezinkulu zolwazi kunye nokuziphatha.

KuSocrates amagama athi, Ububele, ulwazi kunye nolonwabo lwalunxulumene nokuziphatha, ukuthanda kwakhe ukwazi kwamkhokelela ekuphuhliseni ulwazi ukuya kuthi ga kwinqanaba lokuchasa i-Scepticism kunye neRelativism, eyayiyimisinga yangoku yokucinga kwiGrisi yakudala. Ukufezekisa oku, wasebenzisa i-dialogue okanye ubugcisa be-maieutic (Esele ibonwe ngaphambili).

USocrates

KuSocrates, ulwazi lwalulingana nokulunga, wayekhusela imoral intellectualism, nto leyo ebonisa ukuba xa sisenza into engeyiyo yemveli okanye endala, ingqondo iqulunqa impendulo esekelwe kwinto esiyenzayo, ilungile, ukwenza ngendlela embi kuluphawu lokuba. ukungazi, ngoko ke onolwazi akaze enze ububi.

Lo mgaqo wokuziphatha yifomula apho uSocrates ebeka khona ukuhlukahluka kwemilinganiselo kunye nokwandisa ulwazi lokuziphatha njengesixhobo sokufikelela kwintlalontle yabantu, ephikiswa ngabaninzi, ngenxa yokuqulunqwa kweengcamango zakhe; oku kwanda kweengcinga zokuziphatha kwamkhokelela entolongweni kwaye kamva ekufeni.

Into enomdla ngoSocrates yayikukubaluleka kwakhe ngokubhekiselele kwilizwi kunye nesenzo, ebomini bakhe bonke wayesebenzisa isenzi njengendlela yokufumana ulwazi, wavelisa imilinganiselo yokuziphatha apho iingcamango zingayigqwetha inyaniso yakhe, oku kwamenza ukuba azuze ulwazi. ukuthembeka okukhulu kwaye enabafundi abaninzi.

USocrates (

Ubulumko bukaSocrates

Yonke into equlethe ingcamango kaSocrates, ibumba uhlobo lobulumko oluneenxalenye ezilwahlulayo kweminye imisinga yengcamango, njengokuqwalasela umntu oneempawu ezahlukahlukeneyo; Ubulumko beSocrates buphawulwa ngokuthe ngqo ngokuba neekhrayitheriya ezithile zexesha, makhe sibone.

umlinganiswa obalulekileyo

Imibuzo eyahlukahlukeneyo iveliswa ngokubhekisele kuye, kunye naye umgaqo usungulwa owenza ukuba i-interlocutor iseke imibuzo eyahlukeneyo elinganiselwe, apho ngeengcamango ziveliswa ezinokuthi zixoxwe.

Ubulumko obulula

Iseka indlela iingcamango ezijoliswe kwiindawo ezizele ngabantu, ukuseka umlinganiselo wokulula ukuze ungazami ukuwela kwi-pedantry; olu hlobo lobulumko luvumela ukuseka ukuziphatha okuchanekileyo emntwini, ngelixa ukungazi kubakhokelela ekubeni baqhubeke nezenzo ezimbi.

Uhlobo lwabantu

Yenza ucalucalulo phakathi kobulumko bomntu kunye nobuthixo, ukugcina ingqiqo yendalo yonke yobulumko obungunaphakade bukaThixo, kodwa ngesizathu esifanelekileyo ngaphakathi kweengcamango zomntu, ezivumela ukuba azi ngakumbi malunga nokuziphatha kunye nokuziphatha.

USocrates (

Uhlobo lwePedagogical

Ukuseka iinkqubo ze-dialectic ngokusebenzisa izixhobo ezichazwe ngasentla, indlela yokuphumeza ulwazi emntwini kunye nokufunda kwizenzo zakhe, yayiyimfanelo kaSocrates, eyathi kamva uPlato wakwazi ukuyifumanisa ngeethiyori zakhe. (Bona inqaku Ifilosofi yeNgcaciso).

Yenzelwe abantwana

Ukuchaza ifilosofi kubantu abadala kuhlala kungumsebenzi onzima apho utitshala ngamnye kufuneka abe nenqanaba eliphezulu lokufundisa ukuze, ngaphandle kokudinwa, kunokuqondwa, kodwa ukuba sicinga ukuba iingcamango zikaSocrates zineminyaka engaphezu kwama-2000 ubudala, cinga ukuba yintoni na. izixhobo ekufuneka siziphumeze ukufundisa abantwana.

Ootitshala abaninzi bayakwazi ukudibanisa izixhobo zokufundisa ezenza ukufundisa kube yindlela yokufunda ngendlela eyonwabisayo, ezi zixhobo nazo zinokumiselwa ngokulula, ukufundisa yonke into enxulumene noSocrates, kukho iindlela ezahlukahlukeneyo zokuba abantwana bazi kakuhle kwaye baqonde ukuba yayingubani lo. isithandi sobulumko esinesiphiwo.

Ngaphakathi eklasini, imidlalo yemibuzo, iiphazili kunye nokhangelo lwamagama lunokuphunyezwa, apho umntwana anxulumanisa iingcinga, ibhayografi kunye nengqikelelo yeenqobo ezisesikweni kumdlalo ngamnye kunye nemisebenzi, iintshukumo zeqela nazo zinokuphunyezwa apho ibhaso linikezelwa kulowo uphumeleleyo.

Ekhaya kubalulekile ukuba neengxoxo eziphakamileyo, apho umntwana ephulaphule ngokungazi kakuhle iingcamango ezinokuthi zenze umdla, kubalulekile ukuba abantwana bayazi inkcubeko yokucinga komntu, kwaye enye yeendlela ezilungileyo zokuyifunda kulwazi lukaSocrates. .

Mkhuthaze unyana wakho omncinci, mfundele ibali labantwana elinxulumene noSocrates, apho bachaza ngendlela emnandi kakhulu ubomi bomntu ocingayo, ekuhambeni kwexesha iziqhamo zolwazi kubantwana zavuzwa njengoko ixesha lihamba.