Ungomnye wabagqirha abane be-Western Church kunye no-Saint Augustine (owayezakuba ngumfundi wakhe), u-Saint Leo kunye no-Saint Jerome. Igalelo kubuKatolika ngu-Saint Ambrose Igcwele imisebenzi yokuziphatha, yokuziphatha, yokuzibamba kunye nenkcazo.

Lo ungcwele, ogama lakhe lithetha "Ongafiyo", phakathi kwemibhalo yakhe kukho iiNkcazo zeeNdumiso kunye neZinyango zoMphathiswa, kunye nezinye "kwiiSakramente" eziqukethe ikhathekisidi yoBhaptizo, isiQinisekiso, uMthendeleko kunye neNtetho. Ezinikezelwe kubantu abafikayo kwihlabathi.

Ngubani ingcwele eyayingubhishophu ngaphandle kokuba ngumfundisi?

U-Ambrose wazalelwa eTrier, malunga nonyaka ka-340. Utata wakhe wayengumphathi kaGaul owasweleka xa unyana wakhe wayesemncinci kakhulu, ke umfazi wakhe wabuyela eRoma nosapho lwakhe. Ngesi sizathu ingcwele yexesha elizayo yafunda kwesi sixeko. U-Ambrose oNgcwele wazalelwa kwisixeko saseJamani, kodwa yayingenguye yedwa owazalelwa kweli lizwe. Enye ingcwele eyaziwayo yaseJamani Albert Albert Omkhulu.

Umama wakhe uzinikele ekunikeni inzala yakhe imfundo ngononophelo, kangangokuba u-Ambrosio unetyala elikhulu kuye nakudadewabo, uSanta Marcelina. Umfana wafunda isiGrike kwaye waba yimbongi elungileyo kunye nesithethi, ezinikezela emthethweni.

Kulo Umsebenzi oqaqambileyo wobomi bakhe Nditsalela ingqalelo kubo bobabini u-Anicio Probus (umphathi wase-Roma kunye nomhedeni) kunye no-Symachus (i-praetorial prefect yase-Itali). Phambi kukaProbo wayekhusela ngempumelelo izizathu ezininzi, ezamenza wanyula umcebisi wakhe.

Emva kwexesha umlawuli UValentino wammisela njengeGqwetha leRhuluneli elihlala eMilan. Xa bohlukana noProbus, lo wesibini wacebisa ukuba kungcono ukuba alawule njengobhishophu kunokuba abe ngumgwebi. Kwakungelolize, iofisi awayephathiswe yona yayikhona Inqanaba lobumeli kwaye yenye yezona ziphezulu kwaye zinoxanduva kubukhosi baseNtshona.

Amabinzana eSaint Ambrose

Zeziphi izizathu ezikhokelele ekutyunjweni kwakho njengomphathiswa?

UBhishophu u-Auxencio wayengumqhekeki wase-Arian owayelawula iDiocese yaseMilan phantse iminyaka engamashumi amabini kwaye wasweleka ngo-374. Isixeko sahlulwa sangamacandelo amabini, abanye bekhetha ubhishophu wamaKatolika abanye ngo-Arian.

Njengokuba u-Ambrosio wayefuna ngazo zonke iindlela ukuthintela ukungqubana, waya kwiCawe apho ulonyulo lwaluza kubanjwa khona wabongoza abantu ukuba benze njalo ngoxolo. Wothuka, njengoko wayethetha, umntu wakhwaza: "Ubhishophu waseAmbrosio"!

Abanye ababekhona baphindaphinda isikhalo kwaye bobabini amaKatolika kunye nama-Arians avuma ukuba umntu ongcwele makanyulelwe isikhundla. Ngelixa oobhishophu babekhona bevuma ukutyunjwa kwakhe ngesibhengezo, u-Ambrosio watyhola ngesimanga esithi "imvakalelo ibigqithile kumthetho weCanon" kwaye wazama ukubaleka.

Bejamelene nemeko engaqhelekanga ngolu hlobo, kwabanjwa izikhumbuzo kwaye uMlawuli wathumela umthetho owawuchaza ngokucacileyo ukuba makahlale kwesi sikhundla. Ukusukela ekutyunjweni kwakhe ngoDisemba 7, 374 Wahlulela ubomi bakhe ekufundeni iZibhalo Ezingcwele, ade akwazi ukuqonda nokutolika ngokugqibeleleyo. Ngesi sizathu, nge-7 kaDisemba iCawa ibhiyozela iSaint Ambrose.

Esazi ukuba umhlaba wakhe sele ungomnye, waqhawula onke amaqhina asemhlabeni, wahambisa ipropathi yakhe phakathi kwabampofu kwaye wanika yonke imihlaba yakhe nezinto zakhe eCaweni, egcina umvuzo kuphela kudade wabo, uSanta Marcelina.

Ukufezekiswa okuthembekileyo korhwebo lwakhe, wazihlukanisa naloo mzuzu ingqiqo yakhe ebanzi yothando kwabanye njengomfundisi wokwenene kunye nogqirha wabathembekileyo. Wawakhusela ngenkalipho amalungelo eCawa kunye nemibhalo yakhe kunye nemisebenzi awayenzayo ukubonisa imfundiso eyinyani, eyayilwa ngama-Arians. Usweleke ngo-Epreli 4, 397, ngokuhambelana noMgqibelo oNgcwele.

Umsebenzi omkhulu wobufundisi

Ngaphandle kobomi bakhe obunzulu bezopolitiko kunye nenkolo, le ngcwele yavelisa umsebenzi omkhulu wobufundisi. Yonke imihla wayebhiyozela uMthendeleko kunye neCawa yakhe kunye neentshumayelo ezithandwayo ezilindelwe ngolindelo.

Ubungqina bomfundi wakhe oNgcwele uAugustine buye beza kuthi bevela kwiziphumo ezihle zoku kushumayela. Kwinto esele ithethiwe kufuneka songeze eyakhe ukhathalele abo bazisolayo, abangamahlwempu nabavalelwe entolongweni, kwakunye namanyathelo athathiweyo ukufumana ukuxolelwa kwabo bagwetyelwe ukufa kunye "Episcopalisaudientia".

Konke oku kwakungekho mqobo kuye ukuba abhale inani elininzi lemisebenzi kwimixholo yabefundisi kunye neyokomoya, phakathi kwayo apho "uMboniso weVangeli kaLuka oNgcwele" ugqamile, "Ingoma",ininzi "I-Epistolary" okanye Unyango alunikele kwiintombi ezinyulu okanye kwiisakramente.

Ubuntombi bothando lukaThixo, ixabiso elibalulekileyo lesanta eyayingumcebisi ka-Saint Augustine

Ukongeza ekwaziwa kakuhle ngobulumko awabubonisayo xa wayebhala, wayenaso nesiphiwo sediploma, yiyo loo nto urhulumente kwizihlandlo ezininzi wammisela Unozakuzaku welizwe lakho, phambi kwemvelaphi yayo nayiphi na imbambano.

Kwelinye icala, kwiintshumayelo zakhe uSaint Ambrose Wayehlala encoma ubume kunye nokuziphatha kakuhle kobuntombi ngenxa yothando lukaThixo, ethetha ngendlela yobuqu uninzi lweentombi ezingcwalisiweyo. Babedume kangangokuba, ngesicelo sikaSanta Marcellin, wahlanganisa iintshumayelo zakhe ngalo mbandela, ngaloo ndlela ezala enye yezona ncwadi zakhe zidumileyo.

Abanye oomama bazama ukuthintela iintombi zabo ukuba zize kumva eshumayela, kwaye kwakungekho kusilela kwamazwi atyhola ukuba injongo yakhe yayikukususa uBukhosi. Ngobukrelekrele obabubonakala kuye, umphathi wangaphambili waphendula ngelithi kwezo ndawo apho kwakukhonzwa ubuntombi, abantu babebaninzi. Ngamazwi akhe, ubuntombi okanye imfazwe zazingezizo iintshaba ezinkulu zoluntu.

ISan Ambrosio kunye ne-biography yakhe

Ungambuza njani uBhishophu waseMilan

Ukucela ukuthethelelwa kwalowo uqinisekiswe njenge Umpostile wentlalontle kunye nendoda enesakhono sokuphinda indlela yokubhiyozelaNika isigwebo esivelisayo ngezantsi:

Umthandazo kuSaint Ambrose

"INkosi uYesu Kristu inenceba, mna, ndingumoni ongafanelekanga, ndithembe inceba nokulunga kwakho ngaphezu kokulunga kwam, ndisondela, ndisoyika kwaye ndingcangcazela, ukuba ndithathe inxaxheba kwesona sidlo silunge kakhulu esibingelelweni.
Ndiyavuma ukuba intliziyo yam kunye nomzimba wam zidyojwe zizono ezininzi kwaye ingqondo nolwimi lwam azigcinwanga ngononophelo. Kuyo yonke loo nto, Owu Thixo ohlonelwayo!, Owu Mhlekazi omkhulu!, Ndibuhlungu, phakathi kokubandezeleka okungaka, ndibuyela kuwe, ongumthombo wenceba.
Ndiza kuwe ndifuna impilo kwaye ndizimela phantsi kokhuseleko lwakho, kwaye ekubeni kungenakwenzeka ukuba ndithwale ukujonga kwakho njengomgwebi ocaphukileyo, ndinqwenela ngokunyanisekileyo ukukucinga njengoMsindisi wam.
KUWE, Nkosi, ndibhaqa amanxeba am kunye nehlazo lam, ndiyazi ukuba bendihlala ndikukhathaza kanobom, kwaye ngenxa yesi sizathu undinika uloyiko, kodwa ndiyathemba ngenceba yakho engapheliyo.
Ndijonge ngamehlo anenceba, Nkosi Yesu Kristu, Kumkani ongunaphakade, uThixo nomntu obethelelwe emnqamlezweni ngabantu. Mamela kum, kuba ndinethemba kuwe, yiba nenceba kum, ndizele iintlungu kunye nezono, Wena ungumthombo wenceba, ongayekiyo ukuhamba.
Isichotho, ixhoba losindiso, enikelwe kwisibonda somnqamlezo ngenxa yam nangenxa yomnombo wonke woluntu. Isichotho, Igazi elihle nexabisekileyo, elibaleka kumanxeba eNkosi yethu uYesu Krestu ebethelelwe emnqamlezweni, kwaye lihlamba lonke ulwaphulo-mthetho lwehlabathi.
Khumbula, Nkosi, umntu omhlangule ngeGazi lakho. Sele ndizisola ngokuba ndikonile, kwaye ndicebisa ukulungisa izinto kwixesha elizayo.
Bawo onenceba, susa kum bonke ubugwenxa bam, nazo zonke izono zam; ukuze ahlanjululwe umphefumlo kwanomzimba, kufanelekile ukuba angene kweNgcwelengcwele ngesidima.
Wanga lo Mzimba neli Gazi endinqwenela ukulithatha, nangona lingafanelekanga, lisebenze njengokuxolelwa kweziphoso zam, ukuwucoca ngokupheleleyo umphefumlo wam kulwaphulo-mthetho, ukugxotha iingcinga ezingacacanga, ukunika ukusebenza kwimisebenzi ekholisa wena kwaye ekugqibeleni, ukuba yomelele ukukhuselwa kwimigibe yotshaba lomphefumlo wam nomzimba wam. Amen. "

Ividiyo ngomthandazo kuSaint Ambrose:

Umaki kwi: